Protective Factors

■ Prolonged breast feeding

■ Oral contraceptives

■ Multiparity

■ Reproductive surgery

HEREDITARY OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROMES

Five to 10% of cases occur in association with genetically predisposed syndromes called hereditary ovarian cancer syndromes. There are three types:

1. Breast-ovarian cancer syndrome: It involves cancer of the breast and ovary and is linked to the BRCA-1 gene, is autosomal dominant, is seen in younger women.

2. Lynch II syndrome—hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC):

It involves sites that may include breast, ovaries, uterus, and colon.

3. Site-specific ovarian cancer: It accounts for < 1% and has extremely strong genetic link. Usually two or more first-degree relatives have the disease.

OVARIAN CANCER WORKUP

1. As with any pelvic mass, the first step of evaluation is ultrasound.

2. Definitive identification of adnexal mass by laparoscopy/laparotomy follows.

About 25% of ovarian cancers occur in association with endometriosis.

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