Activated Sludge Process

Rolf Kayser

3.1 Process description and historical development 79

3.1.1 Single-stage process 79

3.1.2 Two-stage process 81

3.1.3 Single sludge carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous removal 82

3.1.4 Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process 83

3.1.5 Special developments 84

3.1.5.1 Pure oxygen-activated sludge process 84

3.1.5.2 Attached growth material in activated sludge aeration tanks 84

3.1.5.3 High-rate reactors 85

3.1.5.4 Membrane separation of mixed liquor 85

3.2 Technological and microbiological aspects 86

3.2.1 Wastewater characteristics 86

3.2.2 Removal of organic carbon 87

3.2.3 Nitrification 90

3.2.4 Denitrification 93

3.2.5 Phosphorus Removal 95

3.2.6 Environmental factors 96

3.2.6.1 Dissolved oxygen 96

3.2.6.2 Alkalinity and pH 96

3.2.6.3 Toxic substances 97

3.2.7 Properties of mixed liquor 98

3.3 Plant Configurations 99

3.3.1 Typical Tanks for mixing and aeration 99

3.3.2 Carbon removal processes 101

3.3.3 Nitrogen removal processes 101

3.3.3.1 Introduction 101

3.3.3.2 Pre-anoxic zone denitrification 102

3.3.3.3 Step-feed denitrification process 104

3.3.3.4 Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification 106

3.3.3.5 Intermittent nitrification-Denitrification process 108

3.3.3.6 Intermittent nitrification-denitrification processes with intermittent wastewater feeding 110

3.3.3.7 Special processes for low COD/TKN ratio 111

3.3.3.8 Post-denitrification with external organic carbon 112 3.3.4 Interactions between the biological reactors and the final clarifiers 113 3.4 Design procedure 114

References 116

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