Bacterial Metabolism in Wastewater Treatment Systems

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Claudia Gallert and Josef Winter

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Decomposition of Organic Carbon Compounds in Natural and Manmade Ecosystems 1

1.2.1 Basic Biology, Mass, and Energy Balance of Aerobic Biopolymer Degradation 3

1.2.1.1 Mass and Energy Balance for Aerobic Glucose Respiration and Sewage Sludge Stabilization 4

1.2.1.2 Mass and Energy Balance for Anaerobic Glucose Degradation and Sewage Sludge Stabilization 6

1.2.2 General Considerations for the Choice of Aerobic or Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Systems 8

1.2.3 Aerobic or Anaerobic Hydrolysis of Biopolymers: Kinetic Aspects 8

1.2.4 Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms: Biological Aspects 9

1.2.5 Biomass Degradation in the Presence of Inorganic Electron Acceptors and by an Anaerobic Food Chain 12

1.2.6 Roles of Molecular Hydrogen and Acetate During Anaerobic Biopolymer Degradation 14

1.2.7 Anaerobic Conversion of Biopolymers to Methane and CO2 15

1.2.7.1 Anaerobic Degradation of Carbohydrates in Wastewater 16

1.2.7.2 Anaerobic Degradation of Protein 18

1.2.7.3 Anaerobic Degradation of Neutral Fats and Lipids 20

1.2.8 Competition of Sulfate Reducers with Methanogens in Methane Reactors 22

1.2.9 Amount and Composition of Biogas During Fermentation of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats 23

1.3 Nitrogen Removal During Wastewater Treatment 24

1.3.1 Ammonification 25

1.3.2 Nitrification of Ammonia 25

1.3.2.1 Autotrophic Nitrification 25

1.3.2.2 Heterotrophic Nitrification 26

1.3.3 Denitrification: Nitrate Removal from Wastewater 27

1.3.4 Combined Nitrification and Denitrification 28

1.3.5 Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox®) 29

1.3.6 New N-removal Processes 30

1.4 Enhanced Biological Phosphate Removal 31

1.5 Biological Removal, Biotransformation, and Biosorption of Metal Ions from Contaminated Wastewater 33

1.5.1 Sulfate Reduction and Metal Ion Precipitation 35

1.6 Aerobic and Anaerobic Degradation of Xenobiotics 36

1.7 Bioaugmentation in Wastewater Treatment Plants for Degradation of Xenobiotics 39

References 41

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