Basic Biology Mass and Energy Balance of Aerobic Biopolymer Degradation

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To make soluble and insoluble biopolymers - mainly carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids - accessible for respiration by bacteria, the macromolecules must be hydro-lyzed by exoenzymes, which often are produced and excreted only after contact with respective inductors. The exoenzymes adsorb to the biopolymers and hydrolyze them to monomers or at least to oligomers. Only soluble, low molecular weight compounds (e.g., sugars, disaccharides, amino acids, oligopeptides, glycerol, fatty acids) can be taken up by microorganisms and be metabolized for energy production and cell multiplication.

Once taken up, degradation via glycolysis (sugars, disaccharides, glycerol), hydrolysis and deamination (amino acids, oligopeptides), or hydrolysis and p oxidation (phospholipids, long-chain fatty acids) proceeds in the cells. Metabolism of almost all organic compounds leads to the formation of acetyl-CoA as the central intermediate, which is used for biosyntheses, excreted as acetate, or oxidized to CO2 and reducing equivalents in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The reducing equivalents are respired with molecular oxygen in the respiration chain. The energy of a maximum of only 2 mol of anhydridic phosphate bonds of ATP is conserved during glycolysis of 1 mol of glucose through substrate chain phosphorylation. An additional 2 mol of ATP are formed during oxidation of 2 mol of acetate in the TCA cycle, whereas 34 mol ATP are formed by electron transport chain phosphorylation with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. During oxygen respiration, reducing equivalents react with molecular oxygen in a controlled combustion reaction.

When carbohydrates are respired by aerobic bacteria, about one third of the initial energy content is lost as heat, and two thirds are conserved biochemically in 38 phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP. In activated sludge reactors or in wastewater treatment ponds that are not loaded with highly concentrated wastewater, wall irradiation and heat losses with the off-gas stream of aeration into the atmosphere prevent self-heating. In activated sludge reactors for treatment of highly concentrated wastewater, however, self-heating up to thermophilic temperatures may occur if the wastewater is warm in the beginning, the hydraulic retention time for biological treatment is short (short aeration time), and the air or oxygen stream for aeration is restricted so as to supply just sufficient oxygen for complete oxidation of the pollutants (small aeration volume).

The conserved energy in the terminal phosphoanhydride bond of ATP, formed during substrate chain and oxidative phosphorylation by proliferating bacteria is partially used for maintenance metabolism and partially for cell multiplication. Partitioning between both is not constant, but depends on the nutritional state. In highly loaded activated sludge reactors with a surplus or at least a non-growth-limiting substrate supply, approximately 50% of the substrate is respired in the energy me tabolism of the cells and 50% serves as a carbon source for cell growth (Table 1.1). The biochemically conserved energy must be dissipated to be used for the maintenance metabolism of existing cells and cell growth.

If the substrate supply is growth-limiting, e.g., in a low-loaded aerobic treatment system, a higher proportion of ATP is consumed for maintenance, representing the energy proportion that bacteria must spend for non-growth-associated cell survival metabolism, and less energy is available for growth. Overall, more of the substrate carbon is respired, and the ratio of respiration products to surplus sludge formed is higher, e.g., around 70% : 30% (Table 1.1). In a trickling filter system, an even higher proportion of the substrate seems to be respired. This might be due to protozoa grazing off part of the biofilm.

For comparison, Table 1.1 also summarizes carbon dissipation in anaerobic me-thanogenic degradation. Only about 5% of the fermentable substrate is used for cell growth (surplus sludge formation) in anaerobic reactors, whereas 95% is converted to methane and CO2, and most of the energy of the substrates is conserved in the fermentation products.

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Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

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