Bioreactors 287

René H. Kleijntjens and Karel Ch. A. M. Luyben

11.1 Introduction 287

11.1.1 Contaminated Solid Waste Streams (Soils, Sediments, and Sludges) 287

11.1.2 Characteristics of Contaminated Solids 288

11.2 Bioreactors 289

11.2.1 Reactor Configurations 289

11.2.2 Diffusion of Contaminants out of Solid Particles 291

11.3 Slurry Bioreactors 292

11.3.1 Slurry Processing 292

11.3.2 Batch Operation 293

11.3.3 Full Scale Batch Processes 296

11.3.3.1 The DMT-Biodyn Process 296

11.3.3.2 The FORTEC Process 297

11.3.3.3 The OMH Process 297

11.3.3.4 The Huber Process 297

11.3.4 Sequential Batch Operation (Semicontinuous) 297

11.3.5 Continuous Operation 299

11.4 Solid-State Bioreactors 303

11.4.1 Process Configuration 303

11.4.2 Batch Operation: Composting 303

11.4.3 (Semi)Continuous Operation: The Rotating-drum Bioreactor 304

11.5 Comparison of Bioreactors 305

11.6 Conclusions and Outlook 306

11.6.1 Conclusions 306

11.6.2 Outlook 307 References 307

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