As mentioned in Sections 10.1-10.3, the heap technique has been used in large-scale bioremediation for more than 10 years and is a standard technology for cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Depending on their origin, petroleum hydrocarbons can differ greatly. Successful bioremediation with the heap technology has been described for contamination with gasoline, light and heavy heating oil, and crude oil from different drilling areas. For successful bioremediation, not only the quality of the pollutant is important, but also its concentration and the target value that has to be reached. With the heap technique it is possible to achieve degradation rates of about 80%-90% in a reasonable time depending on the quality of the pollutant. This means that starting concentrations should not exceed 10000-20000 mg kg-1 to reach end concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg-1, which is sufficient for reuse on industrial sites. As mentioned in Section 10.2, the average concentration in the heap is significantly lower than that calculated from the average value from single soil samples; therefore, concentrations of up to 100000 mg kg-1 can be treated after homogenization.
In addition to petroleum hydrocarbons, the following classes of pollutants can be treated by the heap technique:
• BTEX aromatics
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