Highrate Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 135

Hans-Joachim J├Ârdening and Klaus Buchholz

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 Basic Principles 138

5.2.1 Biofilm Formation 138

5.2.2 Biofilm Characteristics 139

5.2.3 Kinetics and Mass Transfer 139

5.2.3.1 External Mass Transfer 140

5.2.3.2 Internal Mass Transfer 141

5.2.4 Support Characteristics 142

5.2.4.1 Stationary Fixed-film Reactors 142

5.2.4.2 Fluidized-bed Reactors 143

5.3 Reactor Design Parameters 145

5.3.1 Scale-up 145

5.3.2 Support 146

5.3.2.1 Stationary-bed Reactors 147

5.3.2.2 Fluidized-bed Reactors 149

5.3.3 Wastewater 150

5.3.3.1 Solids in Stationary Fixed-film Reactors 151

5.3.3.2 Solids in Fluidized-bed Reactors 151

5.3.4 Reactor Geometry and Technological Aspects 151

5.3.4.1 Fixed-bed Reactors 151

5.3.4.2 Fluidized-bed Reactors 152 Fluidization of the Support 153 Bed Height and Loss of Support 153

5.4 Reactor Operation 154

5.4.1 Start-up Procedure 154

5.4.2 Operation Results: Stationary Bed 155

5.4.3 Operational Results: Fluidized-bed Reactors 157

5.5 Conclusions 157 References 159

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