Domestication

Domestication is a process rather than an event, and it is hard to define the point at which a tame or captive wild animal can be classed as domesticated. In general, truly domesticated animals exhibit some obvious genetic divergence from the ancestral ''wild type'' due to the effects of artificial (human) selection over many generations. The first species to undergo the change from wild to domestic life was probably the wolf (Canis lupus), the ancestor of the dog.* The oldest known...

Biomedical and Behavioral Science

Scientists study animals other than humans to understand (1) animals, (2) humans, or (3) universal processes supposedly true of all animate life. The second goal typically involves the strategy of developing animal models to understand and discover solutions for the treatment of humans. An ideal in most philosophies of science is to study the object of interest directly, with as little as possible coming between the object and the investigator's immediate observation of it. Model making...

Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis occurs when an individual passes from one state of being into another state of being, as when a caterpillar becomes a butterfly or when, in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Pygmalion's ivory statue becomes a living woman (book 10). Here we are concerned with the metamorphosis of humans into animals and animals into humans a fictional event, strictly speaking. Ovid's Metamorphoses, written around the time of the birth of Christ, is the main source of tales about the transformation from human...

Preference And Motivation Testing

In a preference test, experimenters give animals a choice of two or more different options or environments and then monitor the animals' behavior to determine which alternative they select. Preference testing has been used in many ways in animal welfare* research. Animals' preferences have been established for air temperature, for type and level of light, and for common materials used in cage or pen design. The methods have also been used to assess how strongly animals seek to avoid aspects of...

Stephen L Zawistowski Metamorphosis See Animal Presence Mice

The mouse is the most typical laboratory mammal, and mice account for a large majority of all mammals used in research in the United States and Europe. Despite their tiny size, mice show remarkable genetic similarities to humans and can be used to study human genetic diseases. With their small body size, adaptability, and high reproductive rate, they are relatively economical and easy to maintain. Although rats and mice in the past were viewed as pests or laboratory animals, they are...

H

John Hildrop ( -1756) was an English cleric and author of the benchmark work Free Thoughts upon the Brute-Creation (1742), in which he critiqued the work of a French Jesuit, Father Bougeant, for his view that animals have no reason, understanding, moral status, or immortal soul. Originally in the form of two letters to a lady, his work directly confronts the major elements of traditional Aristotelian Thomistic thought and is one of the earliest and most sophisticated zoophile books ever...

Utilitarian Assessment of Animal Experimentation

Many defenders of animal experimentation claim that the practice is justified because of its enormous benefits to human beings. Utilitarians can judge conflicts between members of different species by saying that the moral worth of an action would be the product of the moral worth of the creature that suffers, the seriousness of the wrong it suffers, and the number of such creatures that suffer. Many defenders of research often speak as if utilitarian (cost-benefit) calculation is easy....

Native Americans Early Uses of Animals

Many, if not all, pre-Columbian Native American nations used animals in the production of medical treatments and education. The common view of Native medicine has been shamanistic, but although ritual did, and still does, play an important role in Native American medicine, there was extensive use of practical therapy. The more practical therapies included the use of plants and animal parts to treat specific medical conditions. Most Native American nations, with the notable exception of the...

Vegetarian Diets Ethics and Health

Increasingly, people are adopting vegetarian diets for reasons of health or ethics. Vegetarian diets vary greatly, however, and different varieties of vegetarianism might be endorsed by people with different moral commitments. Nutritionists commonly recognize the following varieties of vegetarian vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semivegetarians. People who are vegetarians on moral grounds can consistently use any of these diets, depending on what specific moral reasons they...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

This is a representative list1 of organizations that provide humane education materials directly pertaining to animals or that have information materials related to animal welfare available, either for the asking or for a fee. Space does not allow a complete listing of organizations extensive lists of international organizations are available from many of the organizations listedhere. Nearly all of the curricular and activity materials listedhere are sold, even if they are underwritten by a...

G

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1869-1948 was a world statesman, pacifist, and vegetarian. Reading Henry Salt's A Plea for Vegetarianism and Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet reinforced his ethical vegetarianism on his first visit to England in 1887. Thereafter Gandhi became a committed vegetarian by choice,'' and this commitment was deepened through his conversion to the Hindu see RELIGION, Hinduism philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence or noninjury, which became fundamental to his religious outlook...

Bestiality

Though the term bestiality originally referred to a broad notion of earthy and often distasteful otherness, its meaning is nowadays confined to sexual relations between humans and nonhuman animals. Bestiality is also described as zoophilia, zooerasty, sodomy, and buggery. It can occur in a wide variety of social contexts, including adolescent sexual exploration, typically by young males in rural areas eroticism, a rare event where animals are the preferred sexual partner of humans cruelty,...