Biomedical and Behavioral Science

Scientists study animals other than humans to understand (1) animals, (2) humans, or (3) universal processes supposedly true of all animate life. The second goal typically involves the strategy of developing animal models to understand and discover solutions for the treatment of humans. An ideal in most philosophies of science is to study the object of interest directly, with as little as possible coming between the object and the investigator's immediate observation of it. Model making...

Preference And Motivation Testing

In a preference test, experimenters give animals a choice of two or more different options or environments and then monitor the animals' behavior to determine which alternative they select. Preference testing has been used in many ways in animal welfare* research. Animals' preferences have been established for air temperature, for type and level of light, and for common materials used in cage or pen design. The methods have also been used to assess how strongly animals seek to avoid aspects of...

Stephen L Zawistowski Metamorphosis See Animal Presence Mice

The mouse is the most typical laboratory mammal, and mice account for a large majority of all mammals used in research in the United States and Europe. Despite their tiny size, mice show remarkable genetic similarities to humans and can be used to study human genetic diseases. With their small body size, adaptability, and high reproductive rate, they are relatively economical and easy to maintain. Although rats and mice in the past were viewed as pests or laboratory animals, they are...

Utilitarian Assessment of Animal Experimentation

Many defenders of animal experimentation claim that the practice is justified because of its enormous benefits to human beings. Utilitarians can judge conflicts between members of different species by saying that the moral worth of an action would be the product of the moral worth of the creature that suffers, the seriousness of the wrong it suffers, and the number of such creatures that suffer. Many defenders of research often speak as if utilitarian (cost-benefit) calculation is easy....

Vegetarian Diets Ethics and Health

Increasingly, people are adopting vegetarian diets for reasons of health or ethics. Vegetarian diets vary greatly, however, and different varieties of vegetarianism might be endorsed by people with different moral commitments. Nutritionists commonly recognize the following varieties of vegetarian vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semivegetarians. People who are vegetarians on moral grounds can consistently use any of these diets, depending on what specific moral reasons they...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

This is a representative list1 of organizations that provide humane education materials directly pertaining to animals or that have information materials related to animal welfare available, either for the asking or for a fee. Space does not allow a complete listing of organizations extensive lists of international organizations are available from many of the organizations listedhere. Nearly all of the curricular and activity materials listedhere are sold, even if they are underwritten by a...

G

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1869-1948 was a world statesman, pacifist, and vegetarian. Reading Henry Salt's A Plea for Vegetarianism and Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet reinforced his ethical vegetarianism on his first visit to England in 1887. Thereafter Gandhi became a committed vegetarian by choice,'' and this commitment was deepened through his conversion to the Hindu see RELIGION, Hinduism philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence or noninjury, which became fundamental to his religious outlook...