Dystress is taken from the Greek root dus (bad), which has a notion of hard or bad or unlucky and removes the good sense of a word or increases its bad sense (e.g., dyspepsia, dysentery). Dystress means stress* with which the animal cannot cope (see ANIMAL WELFARE, Coping) and is usually a result of long-term (chronic) stress. It is to be differentiated from stress with which an animal can cope, sometimes referred to as eustress. It often involves activation of the hypothalamus with its connections to the pituitary gland, which controls many of the endocrine glands in the body. The adrenal cortex is often involved, and this leads to a rise in circulating corticosteroids. On other occasions, compromised functioning of the other endocrine glands can lead, for example, to poor weight gain and reproductive failure. Dystress may be an integral part of other aspects of suffering—an animal in pain* from a broken leg may be fearful of being moved or touched, as well as distressed by its inability to move.
Was this article helpful?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.