Confined compression test

Mealiness has been defined as a multidimensional parameter combining the lack of crispiness, hardness and juiciness (De Smedt, 2000). Crispiness can be measured through a shear-rupture or tensile test, hardness and juiciness through a confined compression test (Barreiro et al., 1998c). In the latter test a sample is compressed in a cylindrical probe and the breaking force and juice area of the spot accumulated in the filter paper underneath the probe are measured. Based on the instrumental parameters of crispiness, hardness and juiciness, Barreiro et al. (1998a, 1998c) developed a nine category mealiness scale for Top-Red apples. This scale was evaluated by De Smedt (2000) for different apple cultivars (Golden and Cox's). It was concluded that the scale was only suitable for the classification of apples which were very mealy or not mealy at all. Moreover, since consumers are not able to classify apples into nine categories, De Smedt (2000), constructed a three category classification system (fresh, mid-point and mealy), relating sensory measurements and objective destructive instrumental

Fig. 9.2 Light microscopic images of the tissue of a fresh (a) and mealy (b) Jonagold apple. The mealy tissue contains more air voids and the cells are only loosely interconnected (source: De Smedt, 2000).

Fig. 9.2 Light microscopic images of the tissue of a fresh (a) and mealy (b) Jonagold apple. The mealy tissue contains more air voids and the cells are only loosely interconnected (source: De Smedt, 2000).

measurements of hardness and juiciness. With this classification system, De Smedt (2000) succeeded in correctly classifying 10 out of 12 batches.

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