Natural Aphrodisiacs

Sexual Attraction

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Sexual Attraction Summary


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Herbs, Oils, and Other Aphrodisiacs

This eBook guide teaches you everything that you need to know about how to use natural oils and remedies to turn your partner on in a way that you never thought was possible. Natural remedies and herbs give you access to a world of pleasure that you never know was possible, and this eBook goes through almost every type, giving you the ability to use each one of them to the most powerful effect. You will learn the best herbs and oils to choose, how to choose the right plant for you and your partner. You will also learn the tips and tricks to use herbs safely, without endangering anyone in your ever-expanding search for pleasure. All it takes is the eBook guide, and you can use the best sort of love-making supplements every created: the all-natural kind!

Herbs Oils and Other Aphrodisiacs Summary

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Smell And Sexual Arousal

Freud, almost a hundred years ago, in Civilization and Its Discontents recognized the relationship between olfaction and sexual arousal. He suggested that to remain a civilized society we had to repress our olfactory instincts, otherwise humans would walk around sexually excited all the time (9). Freud, followed by Bieber and later analysts, delineated the connection between smell and sexual development (10). This linkage indicates a specific point in time in the development of Oedipal conflicts. When children recognize the smell of the same-sex parent and the scent of the opposite-sex parent, they learn to dislike the smell of the same sex and transfer positive feelings toward the smell of the opposite-sex parent (11). This establishes a psychodynamic interrelationship between smell and sexual identity. The transfer of emotions to a parent's odor imbues sexual meaning to otherwise inert odors (12). In those who are unable to work through this phase of Oedipal development, fetishes...

Aphrodisiacs And Stimulants

When one thinks of aphrodisiacs, the image of oysters comes to mind. Yet there is no scientific evidence (short of possible pheromonal components of truffles 5a-androst-16-en-3a-ol and celery 5a-androst-16-en-3a-one ) (1,2) that most of the traditional foods considered as aphrodisiacs have any aphrodisiac qualities at all. Alternatively, there is considerable evidence that foods can act to inhibit sexual arousal. In particular, alcohol has a marked inhibiting effect on sexual functions in both men and women (3,4). Shakespeare described, It provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance (5). Scientific research has just begun to investigate the aphrodisiacal effects of food on sexual arousal.

Clinical Case Study

During the original assessment of the client's sexual preferences, penile tumescence was continually monitored as he listened to sexually explicit audiotapes. A total of 18 standard audio scripts were presented during the initial assessment. These were descriptions of two adult homosexual interactions, two adult heterosexual interactions, two acts of adult female exhibitionism, two adult female rapes, one male child physical aggression, one female child physical aggression, one male child nonphysical coercion, one female child non-physical coercion, three male child fondling, and three female child fondling. The client's subjective reports of sexual arousal were assessed by having him rate how aroused he felt using a 10-point Likert scale (0 not at all aroused, 9 extremely aroused). Results of this assessment component before initiating assisted covert sensitization indicated that the client was aroused by adult females however, he also displayed an active pattern of arousal toward...

Assisted Covert Sensitization

Covert sensitization represents one of the major psychotherapeutic, behavioral techniques to be applied to the remediation of sexual deviations. Techniques such as covert sensitization, olfactory aversion, and faradic or electrical aversion therapy have in common the clinical goal of reducing sexual arousal to deviant stimuli through the introduction of aversive events. Covert sensitization is a form of conditioning therapy in which a behavior and its precipitative events are paired with some aversive stimulus in order to promote avoidance

Spices and their essential oils

Delaquis et al. (2002) demonstrated that oil of cilantro (leaves of Coriandrum sativum L.) were effective in inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The inhibitory activity was attributed to presence of alcohols and aldehydes (C6-C10). Many other spices have been tested and shown to have limited or no activity. They include anise, bay (laurel), black pepper, cardamom, cayenne (red pepper), celery seed, chili powder, coriander, cumin, curry powder, dill, fenugreek, ginger, juniper oil, mace, marjoram, nutmeg, orris root, paprika, sesame, spearmint, tarragon, and white pepper (Marth, 1966 Davidson and Naidu, 2000).

Lotzes Theory Of Local Signs

Love storge - companionship and close-friends love agape - saintly and thou-centered love and pragma - logical and practical love. The theory of complementary needs argues that people fall in love with those individuals who complement their own personalities and needs. However, researchers do not agree completely with such an argument and suggest, instead, that people tend to select mates who possess similar (rather than complementary) personalities and needs (cf., the Kerckhoff_Davis hypothesis - discusses the relationship between the filtering factors of similarity and complementarity concerning mate selection). The attitude similarity hypothesis, also called the similarity-attraction hypothesis, states that people are attracted to other persons who share their attitudes and values in significant life areas and issues (cf., the assumed similarity bias effect - refers to a tendency for people to assume that they are similar to most other people). In another theory of love (Stoller,...

Massai Girls Masturbate

The promiscuous nature of men is recognized. Just like the bull in the herd, a man will search for mating partners (women) everywhere he goes (meiki oloing'oni enkang nabo, the bull cannot stay in one homestead only ). In contrast, women are expected not to show sexual desire overtly by initiating or taking a lead in the act itself, but they are acknowledged to have their special ways of communicating their wishes.

The Status Of Cbt Treatment Research

Treatment design flows directly from an individual's unique case formulation. Because the literature concerning treatment outcome for sex offenders is nonconclusive, any interventions that have received empirical support in the literature that address specific identified targets of vulnerability relevant for an individual patient should be considered. Examples of such interventions include techniques that have been shown to be effective with regard to changing cognitive distortions, increasing anger management, decreasing deviant sexual arousal, or increasing social problem-solving ability. Because the clinician is unable to rely on any one of the empirically supported cognitive-behavioral treatment programs specifically designed for sex offending behavior, there are many studies supporting the use of various CBT techniques that address the various vulnerability factors.

Glossary of some Common Terms Used in Psychopharmacology

Aphrodisiac Apoptosis Short piece of synthetic DNA with a nucleotide sequence that is the reverse of, and complementary to, part of the messenger RNA (mRNA) Substance that positively enhances sexual arousal. Programmed cell death characterized by cellular DNA fragmentation and specific cellular changes.

Stress and Elicitor Induced Sprouting

In many legumes such as soy (192), pea (193), fava bean (194), mung bean (195) and fenugreek (196), sprouting in combination with biological, chemical, and physical stress linked elicitation can stimulate phytochemicals relevant in chemoprevention. Preliminary results have provided empirical evidence for a link between proline biosynthesis and oxidation, as well as stimulation of G6PDH during phenolic phytochemical synthesis (180,188,197-199). In light mediated sprout studies in peas (Pisum sativum), acetylsali-cylic acid in combination with fish protein hydrolysates (a potential source of proline precursors) stimulated phenolic content and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity during early germination, with corresponding higher levels of proline and G6PDH activity (200). In other light mediated studies in peas, low pH and salicylic acid treatments stimulated increased phenolic content and tissue rigidity, with concomitant stimulation of G6PDH and proline (199). This work supports the...

Evolutionary Perspectives

Aggression serves vital, evolutionarily adaptive functions. Along with the fundamental drives of fear, hunger, sexual desire, and social affiliation, adaptive aggression is present throughout the order Mammalia, triggered by environmentally appropriate and highly specific stimuli. Agonistic behavior to obtain food,

Bearable Electrical Aversion in Treatment of Homosexuality

A related contingent treatment was used in the treatment of male child molesters by Quinsey and colleagues in 1980, although evidence had by then been advanced that penile circumference decreases could paradoxically index increased sexual arousal, and vice versa. The subjects were given biofeedback of their penile circumference responses as if the responses correctly indexed their arousal to pictures of adult and child nudes. The subjects received electrical shock to the arm when they showed circumference increase to the pictures of children. The only outcome reported was change in their penile circumference responses to the pictures following treatment, although again by this time the ability of many men to consciously modify In the early 1970s studies were reported in which a small number of homosexual men were treated by having them view slides of women in association with those of men with the aim of increasing their sexual arousal to women by positive conditioning. Mc-Conaghy in...

Reproduction And Development

In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm and another hormone called inhibin. The inhibin inhibits FSH production, thus forming a negative feedback loop to control sperm production. LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. The testosterone inhibits GnRH and LH secretion, forming a negative feedback control loop. Testosterone has many functions, including (1) combining with FSH to stimulate sperm production, (2) affecting aggressive behavior and sexual desire through the CNS function, (3) stimulation of protein synthesis and muscle growth, (4) stimulation of secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair, (5) maintaining accessory organs, and (6) in fetuses it stimulates the formation of male reproductive system. In contrast to females, GnRH production in males is relatively constant from hour to hour or day to day, thus keeping its effects also at a constant level.

Types Of Sexual Dysfunction

Negative or traumatic sexual experiences, disappointment in the partner or relationship, and a predominance of secondary dysfunction, especially inhibited sexual desire (i.e., the person has experienced sexual desire but it is now low or nonexistent). 1. Inhibited sexual desire (about half primary and half secondary) 3. Secondary inhibited sexual desire

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with renal cell carcinoma RCC has been reported (McCloskey and O'Connor 1982 Golde et al. 1974 Fukutani et al. 1983). In males, clinical findings include gynecomastia, decreased libido, and elevated urine and serum hCG levels. Only a small number of cases have been reported, though there is no direct evidence of tumor production of these hormones. Gy-necomastia and increased urinary levels gonadotro-pins associated with RCC have been reported with resolution of the endocrine abnormality following ne-phrectomy (Laski and Vugrin 1987).

Husband Wife Relationship

Depending on domestic and herding schedules, season, and household size, a couple may or may not eat together. Except when separated by herding schedules, husbands and wives sleep together. As they grow older, sexual desire is thought to decrease. Besides, it is thought improper to indulge in sex when one's own children have sexual relations. But the sleeping arrangements are not adjusted to meet such requirements. Monogamous couples continue to sleep in the same dwellings, which are rarely shared on a regular basis by other family members. Elderly women whose husbands are polygynous generally move out of the conjugal household to live with one of their sons. Of 285 unions, only 13.7 were found to be polygynous and men entering such unions came largely from wealthy families. Following Islamic practice, women cannot officially initiate divorce, but in practice they do so by deserting their husbands, who then grant them a divorce on the payment of monetary compensation.

Origin Botanical Facts

Arugula belongs to the Cruciferae family and is a close relative of the mustard. Ancient Egyptians and Romans considered arugula leaves in salads to be an aphrodisiac. It is a minor crop in the southeastern United States, grown to a limited extent commercially and in home vegetable gardens. Seeds often are listed in seed catalogs as roquette under the category of herbs. A cool season vegetable best grown in Florida during the fall, winter, and spring, it matures from seed in 2 to 3 months. Periods of very warm temperatures cause it to bolt (go to seed) rather quickly. Few pests attack the arugula.

Gender Roles in Economics

The necessity of sexual desire for the continuance of society brought with it jealousy, worry, and adultery, which caused numerous social problems. Oral history documents that in the last underworld men and women disagreed about important aspects of their joint lives. The powers of sexual attraction, in one form or another, played a fundamental role in the initial dispute that took place between First Man and First Woman (O'Bryan, 1956, pp. 6-7 Yazzie, 1971, p. 28).

Complementary Odors

The Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) first introduced the theoretical notion of complex (i.e., a presumed organized structure or collection of ideas, impulses, and memories sharing a common emotional tone that is excluded wholly or partly from consciousness, but continues to affect a person's thoughts and behaviors) into psychology and psychoanalysis in 1895, and was adapted later by the psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Alfred Adler (1870-1937), and Carl Jung (1875-1961). In 1910, Jung introduced the term complex indicator into psychology which, in the context of an association test, refers to any behavior - such as blushing or responding slowly - that is caused by a repressed complex (cf., Jung, 1918). Among the classical psychic complexes are the following Diana complex - the repressed wish of a woman to be a man (named after Diana, the virginal Roman goddess of the moon) Electra complex - the female counterpart to the male Oedipus complex,...

Rural Sudanese Women Janice Boddy

The practice of female circumcision is often popularly understood in Western contexts as simply intended to enforce female sexual restraint resulting from Islamic beliefs. Indeed, many scholars have analyzed the practice of female circumcision, arguing that the operation is intended to curb female sexual desire (Boddy, 1989, p. 53). In an important analysis of the issue based on fieldwork in rural Sudan (1976-1977, 1983-1984), Boddy argues that understanding female circumcision as an attempt at controlling female sexuality represents a primarily male perspective and confuses causes with effects (Boddy, 1989, p. 53). While the procedure does effectively restrain women's sexuality, women assert that its intent is to prepare girls for womanhood by making them clean and pure. Further, women emphasize through circumcision their fertility potential over their sexuality. By removing parts of their genitalia, women demonstrate that their value stems from their ability to give birth rather...

Clinical Presentation

A limited number of other medications, chemicals, and natural toxins potentially result in bradycardia and hypotension. Common drugs include calcium channel antagonists, centrally acting a-agonists, and digoxin. Many plants (e.g., oleander, digitalis, and rhododendron) contain cardiac glycosides that may cause symptoms following ingestion of plant parts or consumption of teas brewed from the plant. Chinese medicinal preparations and aphrodisiacs often contain animal-derived cardiac glycosides (e.g., bufotoxin) that may cause bradycardia and hypotension. Such chemicals as organophosphate insecticides, cyanide, or hydrogen sulfide cause bradycardia.

Consequences of Autonomic Stimulation

Calcarine Fissure

Similar to other structures within the limbic system, stimulation of different areas of the hippocampus also lead to behavioural and emotional changes such as increased sex drive, rage and placidity. In addition, when the hippocampi have been surgically excised, the end result is anterograde amnesia and some degree of retrograde amnesia. It is, therefore, suggested that hippocampus may be involved in the short- and long-term memory processes. Owing to the extensive neuronal connections between it and various areas of the brain, stimulation of the amygdala not only causes effects similar to that of the hypothalamus, but widespread behavioural patterns. It is thought that the amygdala project into the limbic system affecting the current behavioural status in relation to both the surroundings and thoughts of the individual. It is believed to help pattern the behavioural response of the individual so that it is appropriate for each occasion.

Theoretical Bases

Sexual arousal has been conceptualized as an emotion, which results from the interaction between cognitive processes and physiological response systems. Therefore, in order to experience subjective sexual arousal, individuals need to be able to accurately detect these bodily sensations. There appear to be substantial individual differences in the awareness of basic bodily sensations, which are related to genital responsiveness, perception thresholds, and attentional focus. A stimulus may convey different meanings, depending on the learning experiences of the individual (i.e., the individual's history), and so the interpretation placed on the current circumstances. It has been argued that people learn to be sexual. For women, this learning process involves tuning into a wide range of situational and physiological cues. Appraisal of the current situation (based on prior learning experiences), in combination with feedback from genital sensations, combines to lead to subjective sexual...

Sexual Performance Motivation And Stimulation Of Males

Research on the sexual performance of males has yielded interesting findings that remind us that the domesticated animal is a social animal with species-typical perceptual abilities and responses. Providing sexual arousal for males improves the efficiency of sexual performance tests. Male pigs, horses, goats, and cattle but not sheep are sexually stimulated by the opportunity to view estrous females or other sexual activity. Male sheep are aroused, however, when exposed to other male sheep that have either recently mated or recently contacted estrous females. 6 Promiscuous farm species, if given the opportunity, will form social systems consisting of groups of mature females with their offspring, bands of juvenile males, and individual adult males. Cows and female goats, respectively, will engage in female-to-female sexual activity. This activity provides a visual signal that attracts and arouses the males. In contrast, estrual sheep do not form groups of mounting females. Instead,...

Empirical Studies

A number of studies have evaluated the effectiveness of arousal training in the treatment of inorgasmia in women. In a review of studies that examined the factors that contributed to sexual arousal among women, it was found that masturbation frequency, coital frequency, and having a positive opinion about erotic stimulus and a higher awareness of vaginal lubrication were the most significant predictors of both subjective and physiological sexual arousal. These results would suggest that respondents who have a positive attitude to their sexual responses, and who are attuned to their levels of arousal, are more likely to experience higher levels of both physiological and subjective sexual arousal. Thus, arousal training would be expected to be an effective therapy with women experiencing inorgasmia. This prediction is supported by studies by McCabe and her colleagues that employed imagery training to enhance sexual arousal among inorgasmic. Imagery training was used in both of these...

Role Of Motivational States In Homeostasis

Which retains only appropriate responses in a defined ecological surounding. In this context, one of the most determinant parameters that participate in keeping a specific behavioral response is the cost-benefit ratio. The other component that also controls motivated behaviors, namely anticipator mechanisms, gives to the homeostasis concept its temporal dimension. Sometimes, lack rather than need is able to activate drives. In the case of sexual arousal, a feeling of lack becomes a simulation of need. Accordingly, homeo-static regulation is often anticipatory and can be initiated before any physiological deficit occurs. Such a role is played by clock-like mechanisms that turn physiological behavioral responses on and off before the occurrence of any tissue deficits. The master clock mechanism that drives and coordinates many rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. One such common cycle is a daily rhythm called the circadian rhythm, which controls...

Dazomet Methyl Isothiocyanate Precursor Mail

Toasted and ground fenugreek seed is an essential ingredient of curry powders. Sotolone (3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone) was recently established as a character impact flavor component in fenugreek on the basis of of its ''seasoning-like'' flavor note (12). Its aroma characteristic changes from caramel-like at low concentration levels to currylike at high concentrations. The sensory impact of sotolone is attributed to its extremely low detection threshold (0.3 mg l water), and the fact that its concentration in fenugreek seeds is typically 3000-times higher than its threshold.


Arousal training also appears to be effective in the treatment of inorgasmia in women. Learning theory can be used to explain the development of this sexual dysfunction, and inorgasmic women have been shown to experience low levels of sexual arousal. Although further research is needed to determine other strategies to enhance arousal, preliminary research would suggest that imagery training is an effective mechanism to increase arousal levels.


Galingale is a spice native to China and Indonesia, and a member of the ginger family. It looks similar to ginger, and has the pungent taste of ginger and pepper combined. In antiquity it was used for medicinal purposes, but in the Middle Ages it was added to dishes across the Continent, from Italy to Germany, and all the way to England. It may also have played a role in the adulteration of pepper. Classified by physicians as extremely warm and dry, galingale was recommended for a cold stomach, as a digestive aid, a breath freshener, and an aphrodisiac.

W L Marshall

Moved to progressively greater use of group therapy (still cognitive-behavioral in approach) with individual therapy being used either to facilitate or consolidate the benefits from group therapy, or to address those targets (e.g., deviant sexual arousal) that seem more suited to individual work. At least one current program (Marshall, Anderson, & Fernandez, 1999) conducts all treatment (including instructions for, and monitoring procedures aimed at, deviant arousal) in a group context. As the field progressed, it became obvious that additional components needed to be added for treatment to be effective. A variety of procedures were developed to enhance sexual arousal to normative sexual acts and partners, and procedures were added to broaden sexual knowledge, develop social skills, reduce cognitive distortions, and increase empathy (Marshall & Laws, 2003). At present,


Its many seeds are surrounded by pulp and retained in a membrane. In antiquity and the Middle Ages it was a symbol of fertility. A characteristic feature of Middle Eastern cuisine, the pomegranate also gained a certain popularity in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, which was strongly influenced by Arab culture, and in England. Seeds were used as a garnish, and the juice was added to some dishes. Considered warm and moist in nature, sweet pomegranates were prescribed by medieval physicians for coughs and as an aphrodisiac. When eaten before a meal pomegranates supposedly stimulated the appetite.

Chapter Eleven

The boy's original narcissistic wound is aggravated in adolescence by the hypersexuality of the adolescent male, whose female counterpart is generally not tormented by a comparable hormonal surge. The typical male adolescent experience is one of perpetual sexual arousal without an adequate outlet. This recapitulates the intensely non-gratifying situation of the Oedipal period and his feelings of inferiority vis- -vis other men. Throughout life, he can never be certain of a woman's sexual desire her sexual desire is not so evident as his own erection. This sexual difference simply intensifies his doubts about the woman's feelings for him, thus constituting another reason for him to try and control her body and soul.


Since antiquity, history and literature are replete with references to the waning of male virility, in all its ambiguities, with age. The seemingly inexhaustible repertoire of remedies to stave it off testifies to the ubiquity of this human fixation. In particular, the decline in male sexuality in old age, being both emblematic and problematic, it is not surprising that aphrodisiacs are among the most ancient and ubiquitous of folk remedies. The modern educated layman, however, having lost faith in rhino horn and tiger penis, appears now bedazzled by the misty allure of hormones, the contemporary folkloric embodiment of the fabled aphrodisiac. And for hormones, our social organization dictates that doctors remain its monopolistic dispensers.


About 10 of choriocarcinoma of the testis and 15 - 20 of gonadal stroma sex cord testicular tumors induce gynecomastia through their autonomous synthesis and secretion of estrogens. Tumor estrogen production may also cause decreased libido and poor sperm quality. The diagnosis of these hormone producing tumors is usually clinically evident from the finding of a testicular swelling that might be painless or painful. Occasionally the sole presenting feature is gynecomastia or very rarely decreased potency and no palpable testicular lesion (Lemack et al. 1995 Haas et al. 1989). Under these circumstances the diagnosis of testicular neoplasia may be missed. The presence of such occult tumors may be suspected from the biochemical findings of raised serum estrogens and depressed testosterone hormone levels. However, this does not always apply as some clinically recognizable estrogenic tumors have been reported in patients with normal hormonal profiles. Although gy-necomastia is a relatively...

Components Of Food

When one thinks of giving chocolates on Valentine's Day to a loved one, we hope this acts as an aphrodisiac but does it To understand this better, the sensory components of food need to be delineated. These include texture, visual appearance, viscosity, tactile properties, and gustatory and olfactory components. A Twinkie, a cucumber, and a doughnut are particularly Freudian based on their shape and visual appearance. The texture and viscosity of oysters, likewise, may induce reminiscence of sexual organs. Alternatively, the sexual experience surrounding the ingestion of a food may also cause the food itself to become endowed with a sexual valence, which may be aphrodisiacal in nature. Another possible mechanism is not through achieving a direct sexual meaning, but rather, a food can become sexually charged by becoming indirectly associated with sexual function, for example, by being considered a guilty pleasure. Since in our puritan society, sex and other hedonic pleasures are...

Marita P McCabe

Arousal training for inorgasmia among women involves utilizing mechanisms that enhance sexual arousal. Women with inorgasmia generally demonstrate low levels of arousal, so therapy needs to focus on mechanisms designed to increase arousal levels. The focus of this arousal training needs to be directed toward both subjective and physiological levels of arousal. In an excellent 1995 review of the literature, Laan and Everaerd demonstrated how research studies have indicated the independence of these two dimensions of arousal, particularly among women. Thus, arousal training needs to focus on mechanisms that will enhance both aspects of arousal. The most commonly used measure of physiological sexual arousal among women is vaginal vasoconges-tion. This is generally achieved by using a vaginal pho-toplethysmograph which measures both vaginal blood volume and vaginal pulse amplitude, with vaginal pulse amplitude generally being seen as the most accurate measure of sexual arousal. Strategies...

Theoretical Basis

The principles of learning and behavior have been integrated into many of the most commonly employed therapy techniques in use today with sexual deviations, or the paraphilias, as discussed by Gaither, Rozenkranz, and Plaud in 1998. Abel and Blanchard in 1976 stated 25 years ago that The problem of deviant sexual behavior was one of the earliest areas of psy-chopathology to which behavioral techniques were applied, and it continues to be a major area of research and treatment. The earliest behavioral theories of sexual deviations were based on a classical conditioning paradigm. Theorists such as Binet in 1888, Jaspers in 1963, and Rachman in 1961 believed that these deviations were the result of accidental pairings between stimuli that naturally elicited sexual arousal and originally neutral stimuli. According to Jaspers in 1963, Perversion rises through the accidents of our first experience. Gratification remains tied to the form and object once experienced, but this does not happen...

Common Spices

All Masala Ingested

Curry powder is a mixture of spices that may contain coriander, cumin, pepper, chili peppers, ginger, fenugreek, onion, cinnamon, paprika, saffron, cilantro, or turmeric. Ingredients may depend on the area of the world in which the curry was mixed. Fenugreek Seeds Ground from the seeds of a plant belonging to the pea family, fenugreek has a bittersweet flavor but leaves a caramel or maplelike aftertaste. A component in many Indian dishes, fenugreek also can be added to curry powders. Or, it may be used to flavor artificial maple syrups. Use sparingly the flavor of fenugreek can be overpowering.


Herbs and supplements that promote platelet inhibition include angelica, anise, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, fish oil, garlic, ginger, horse chestnut, horseradish, licorice, meadowsweet, onion, Panax ginseng, red clover, vitamin E, and willow. Similarly, concomitant administration of drugs, including aspirin, clopido-grel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopi-dine (Ticlid), and warfarin (Coumadin), may increase the risk of bleeding in some people. This is just one example of the interactions between drugs with herbals and herbals with other herbals. There may be an infinite number of interactions.


People will not engage in sexual activities. The Silwa of Egypt adopt the extreme measure of removing the girl's clitoris when she is 7 or 8 years old, reasoning that this will reduce her sex drive (Frayzer, 1985). Other societies practice infibulation, a procedure that temporarily closes the vaginal opening. In some places, girls are accompanied by older women whenever they are likely to find themselves in the company of the opposite sex. Sometimes, the sexes are segregated to minimize the opportunities for sexual experimentation.

Embodied Desire

While normalizing SRS is performed on intersex children without their knowledge, transgender adults who seek SRS may have difficulty obtaining this surgery unless they play a role that depicts the surgery as normalizing (e.g., by claiming I am a heterosexual woman trapped in a man's body ). The common theme here is that clinical practice seeks to create bodies that approximate normative ways of being sexed and of expressing sexual desire. That treatments for maintaining gender and sexual normativity continue despite the existence of individualized protocols seeking consent raises ethical concerns in relation to questions of identity. What role can medical practices ethically take in shaping the identities of people who are subject to those practices

Ethical Aspects

There are also attitudes inherent in African sexuality that not only permit circumcision but foster it. In most African cultures, sexuality is regarded as a gift to be used for the procreation of the human species, and any public or even private display of sex-related feeling or enjoyment is seen as debasing this gift. In some communities, only a token expression of the sexual self is permitted. The issue of sexual fulfillment is unimportant. Thus, controls over the sexual behavior of women are designed to curb female sexual desire and response and to encourage disregard for the sexual aspects of their lives. The removal of the organ or organs responsible for sexual stimulation is therefore taken as necessary for the fixation of certain values within the community and for ensuring the acceptance of rigid standards of sexual conduct. Thus, the underlying concern of those who defend the institution of female circumcision is that women's sexuality will be corrupted if women are allowed...


Saponins from ginseng root (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) may also be important. Antioxidant effects have been reported for total ginseng saponins and its individual saponins (ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd others include Re and Rg1). Furthermore, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rb2 protected cultured rat myocardiocytes against superoxide radicals, and the mechanism for this may involve induction of genes responsible for antioxidant defences rather than radical scavenging. Ginsenosides stimulate endogenous production of nitric oxide in rat kidney, and this may contribute to the observed antinephri-tic action of these compounds and suggest a protective role in the kidney. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the observed cardioprotective effects of ginsenosides in animal models may be mediated by nitric oxide release. In addition, ginsenoside enhanced release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells, particularly from perivascular nitric oxidergic nerves in the corpus cavernosum of animal models,...


See Escherichia coli Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Federal Republic of Germany (FG). See Germany Feeder cattle Feeding aquaculture livestock feeds livestock production Feeding tankage Feeding tubes Feedlots Feijoa Feints Fennel seed Fenugreek Fermentation See also Yeast alcoholic beverages amino acid production baked goods beer black tea breadmaking cheese

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