Aquaponics Projects For Beginners

Aquaponics 4 You

Aquaponics is a complete beginners guide to learn how to harness the power of both fish and plants. The waste products that fish produce are food for the plants, so that your plants can grow twice as fast as normal plants. Not only will the grow faster, they will also produce 10 times more than the average garden will ever dream of. And you don't ever have to weed! This is a 100% organic way to grow your own food. The Aquaponics guide comes in PDF format and gives you access to easy step-by-step videos to learn to set up your own garden. The book gives you the tools to build a small home garden or a multi-acre farming operation. What you do with the information is up to you! Not only does the complete instruction course come with everything you need to get started, it includes six extra books that cover organic gardening, flower gardening, organic farming, worm farms, cooking organically, and eating healthy. Don't waste your time on a small garden that needs weeding and constant care. Use Aquaponics to grow your best garden every. Continue reading...

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Global Aquaculture Producers And Production

Aquaculture production around the world grew at an average annual rate of 9.6 for the period 1984 through 1995 (3). In 1995, total production approached 28 million metric tons (3). Production jumped to 34.11 million metric tons in 1996 (6). A breakdown by type of organisms grown is presented in Table 1 for each year. The total value of the 1995 aquaculture crop exceeded 42 billion (3) and rose to 46.5 billion in 1996 (6). The People's Republic of China is far and away the world's largest producer of aquaculture species. In 1995, production in China exceeded 17.5 million metric tons. India, in second place, produced slightly over 1.6 million metric tons, or less than 10 of China's production (3). In 1996, China's production exceeded 23 million metric tons, with India climbing modestly to 1.8 million metric tons (6). The top 20 aquaculture-producing nations during 1995 and 1996, in descending order, are shown in Table 2. The same countries are on both lists, but some changes in ranking...

Past And Current Status Of Aquaculture

The earliest recorded evidence of aquaculture was 900 B.C. 1 However, for most species of fish, scarcities due to overfishing in the late 1900s provided adequate incentive to domesticate aquatic plants and animals. Technologies developed rapidly, and aquaculture industries have grown rapidly through the 1990s (Fig. 1). China leads the world in aquaculture production. With the exception of Chile, the top 10 countries in world aquaculture production are all Asian countries.1-2-1 Most of these (with the exception of Japan) are lesser-developed nations. The majority of aquaculture production consists of a mixture of carp species raised for family and local consumption. However, aquaculture has increasingly become a source of foreign exchange through export. The United States alone imported 18.5 billion worth of edible and nonedible fisheries products in 2001. Once envisioned as a blue revolution that would save the world from starvation, aquaculture has come under increasing criticism...


The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has defined aquaculture as, the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans, and aquatic plants (1). Other definitions include the rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions and underwater agriculture (2). The list of organism groups mentioned in the FAO definition is not complete. Aquaculturists have also been involved in the production of echinoderms (sea urchins), cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish), reptiles (alligators, sea turtles, freshwater turtles), and amphibians (frogs). Aquaculture is an inclusive term that encompasses fresh, brackish, marine, and even hypersaline waters. The term mariculture is more restrictive in that it is usually defined as referring to aquaculture in saline environments. Public sector aquaculture has historically involved production of aquatic animals to augment or establish recreational and commercial fisheries. More...

Preface to the Second Edition

Worldwide consumption of fish and fish products has continued to escalate in the last few decades as the population increases and with the realization that fish is an excellent protein. The aquaculture industry is now the single fastest-growing food production process in the world, this is partly because fish is also less expensive to produce. Since the publication of the first edition of this trilogy on 'fish diseases and disorders', a tremendous volume of research has been conducted on parasites, especially those that cause morbidity and mortality in fish. This is reflected in the current enlarged edition however, the aims, philosophy, focus, audience and format of this edition have remained unchanged. As with the first edition I am hopeful that this edition will be useful to colleagues, and that it will also serve to highlight the relevance and importance of our discipline to the aquaculture industry.

Preface to the First Edition

Fin fish is the primary source of protein for humans in many parts of the world and this is especially true in most developing countries. The catch-fish industry has declined significantly and the decline is due to a series of factors which include over-fishing, loss of fish habitats and environmental pollution. In the past few decades numerous international agencies and national governments have encouraged and continue to encourage private industries to be involved in aquaculture or have themselves gone into intensive fish culture, usually under artificial and or semi-artificial conditions. Disease outbreaks (infectious and non-infectious) with resulting high mortalities occur more often when fish are held under relatively crowded and confined conditions. Also, mass mortality of healthy fish may occur even under good environmental conditions when an infectious agent is accidentally introduced into the culture system. The principal audience for the books is research scientists in the...

Species Under Cultivation

The emphasis here is on aquatic animal production, but as previously indicated, aquatic plants comprise nearly 25 of global aquaculture production by weight. Many hundreds of thousands of people are involved, worldwide, in aquatic plant production. The quantity of brown seaweeds, red seaweeds, green seaweeds, other types of algae, and miscellaneous aquatic plants such as watercress, water chestnuts, and ornamental plants produced in 1996 was estimated at more than 7.7 million metric tons (6). Several species of macroalgae are listed in Table 3. Microscopic algae and cyanobacteria are sometimes marketed as food or as a nutritional supplement (eg, Spirulina sp.). In addition, an undocumented quantity of algae (mostly of the single-celled variety) is produced for use as food for filterfeeding aquatic animals (primarily mollusks and zooplankton). Planktonic organisms such as rotifers are reared on algae and then used to feed the young of crustaceans and fish that do not accept prepared...

Reproduction And Genetics

Selective breeding has been long practiced as a means of improving aquaculture stocks. In some instances it has not been possible or is at least quite difficult and expensive to produce broodstock and spawn them in captivity, so cul-turists continue to rear animals obtained from nature. Most of the species that are being reared in significant quantities around the world are produced in hatcheries using either captured or cultured broodstock. Milkfish is a notable exception. That species has been spawned in captivity, but most of the fish reared in confinement are collected as juveniles in seines and sold to fish culturists. Wild shrimp postlarvae continue to be used to stock ponds in some parts of the world, though hatcheries may also be available in the event sufficient numbers of wild postlarvae are unavailable in a given year. In the United States, where shrimp culture involves the use of exotic species, all the animals reared come from hatcheries, both in the United States and in...

Diseases And Their Control

Aquatic animals are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including those caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. A range of chemicals and vaccines has been developed for treating the known diseases, although some conditions have resisted all control attempts to date, and severe restrictions on the use of therapeutants in some nations has impaired the ability of aquaculturists to control disease outbreaks. The United States is a good example of a nation in which the variety of treatment chemicals is limited (Table 6). In many instances when a drug is cleared for use on aquatic animals in the United States, the species on which the drug can be used is limited. Clearing a drug for catfish, for example, does not necessarily mean it can be used on trout. The cost of obtaining clearance for drug and chemical use can be in the millions of dollars, and it is often uneconomical to attempt gaining clearance for species that are not major contributors to overall aquaculture...

Harvesting Processing And Marketing

Aquaculturists may harvest and even process their own crops, although custom harvesting and hauling companies are often available in areas where the aquaculture industry is sufficiently developed to support them. Some processing plants also provide harvesting and live-hauling services. Centralized processing plants specifically designed to handle regional aquaculture crops are established in areas where production is sufficiently high. In coastal regions, aquacultured animals are often processed in plants that also serve capture fisheries. Marketing can be done by aquaculturists who operate their own processing facilities. Most aquaculture operations depend on a regional processing plant to market the final product. In all cases aquaculturists should remember that their job is not complete until the product reaches the consumer in prime condition.

Quantifying Processes

As was mentioned in the definition of aquacultural engineering, many engineering disciplines can be applied to the design of aquaculture systems. In this section, some of the critical processes that are unique in an aquaculture system and that define design parameters will be described. The key processes in the design of aquatic systems have to do with the primary water quality factors that affect the cultured organism and with how the organism affects water quality. As a starting point in the description of important processes in an aquaculture operation, one can consider how a fish relates to its environment. Fish consume oxygen from the water and release water products from their metabolism back into the water. The main waste products of concern are ammonia, carbon dioxide, and particulate and dissolved organics. Depletion of dissolved oxygen below a certain level, which is species and size dependent, results in increased stress to the fish and may ultimately result in suffocation....

Future Developments

The aquaculture farm of the future will take many forms. The difference with today's farms will be in the level of intensity of water use, in the degree of control over the culture environment exerted by the operator, and in the predictability of growth and overall production rates. The application of engineering will become more and more important as the aquaculture industry continues to grow and diversify. Developments will be in new culture systems, materials, equipment, and water quality monitoring, treatment, and control. The efficient use of natural resources, especially water, will be a primary constraint on new aquaculture operations. To make more efficient use of water, higher fish biomass will be maintained per unit of water volume and per unit of water use by the implementation of water treatment and recirculation systems. The safe rearing of these large biomasses will require continuous monitoring of water quality, and the use of alarms and backup systems. In most cases...

The Ecological Implications of Biotechnology

Although all these concerns are credible, defenders of biotechnology respond that these objections are not specific to genetic engineering but apply to agriculture and aquaculture generally. Indeed, GM technologies may only increase slightly or indeed decrease slightly the relentless, total, and overwhelming impact of agriculture on the natural world. Even before the discovery of the structure of DNA, the entire midsection of the United States had been turned from prairie or savanna ecosystems to amber waves of grain. To restore the prairie, ecologists searched for native species in abandoned cemeteries and railroad rights-of-way. Modern agriculture roots out nature literally and figuratively and replaces it with monocultures that cover millions of acres. Nature is equally devastated whether those monocultures consist of conventional hybrids or GM plants.

Miscellaneous Carotenoid Extracts

Violaxanthin, lycopene and -apo-8'-carotenol together with a number of others. About 115 carotenoid pigments have been reported in citrus. Colorants from carrots usually contain about 80 -carotene and up to 20 a-carotene plus small amounts of several others. Some of the high pigment strains of carrots used for colorant extracts also contain lycopene. Astaxanthin is a desirable addition to the diet of salmon and trout in aquaculture because of its ability to impart a desirable red color to the flesh. The usual sources of astaxanthin are the by-products of the lobster and shrimp processing industry, but the demand exceeds the supply. This has led to an interest in growing the red yeast Phaffia rhodo-zyma as a raw material for a concentrated extract. But unfortunately Phaffia produces the wrong optical isomer of astaxanthin for optimal accumulation in the flesh of salmon. Hinostroza et al. (7) reported that carotenoids from three sources, synthetic astaxanthin, crabs (Pleuro-codes...

Characteristics And Geographic Distribution

Channel catfish is the most widely utilized catfish species for commercial production.1-1-3-1 The native range originally was from the Great Lakes and Sakatchewan River southward to the Gulf of Mexico, but introductions have greatly increased the distribution for both sport fishing and aquaculture. Coloration is white on the belly (ventrum), silver to gray on the sides, and gradually darkening to almost black on the top (dorsum) (Fig. 1). Albinism, caused by a single recessive gene, can be common in commercial culture and the aquarium industry, but is rare in nature. Commercial production of channel catfish began more than 40 years ago and has become one of the most successful aquaculture enterprises in the United States. 4 Major processors processed more than 630 million pounds

Future Development

Fish is health food is not a marketing gimmick but truly states the merits of seafood. The demand for this highly nutritious protein food, much avowed for its healthful omega-3 fatty acids, will continue to grow in demand. This pressure on a limited resource will encourage better biological management of the natural wild stocks (including international cooperation), faster expansion of aquaculture operations, and the total utilization of the raw material.

Gross Anatomy And Orientation

The anatomy of the salmonid is emphasized here because they are one of the most widely studied genera in terms of physiology and aquaculture science. Figure 1 presents the general orientation and terminology that will be used throughout this article. It also points out the major external features of the animal.

Changes in the food production chain and food industry structure

Not all changes in the food production and marketing chain have resulted from technological advances - some changes are due to other factors such as a balancing of global supply and demand for certain food products. Additionally, some changes in the food production chain may increase some food safety risks or alter the mix of risks. For example, the use of aquaculture is becoming more common as wild fisheries become increasingly over-harvested and less cost-effective for some species and areas. US aquaculture production increased by over 50 between 1990 and 2000 (NMFS, 2002) and the aquaculture share of the world production also has increased (FAO, 2000). Farm-raised fish pose a different set of food safety challenges from those of wild-caught fishery products. Farm-raised fish are subject to contamination from residues by production inputs (e.g. vaccines, feed additives, and antibiotics), whereas wild-caught seafood may be more subject to histamine risks from poor temperature control.

Maximum residue limits

Maximum levels of pesticides are also set for drinking water. Pesticides get into water from spraying, runoff, percolation or from treatment of fish in aquaculture. Good practice is increasingly being developed to minimize the levels in raw water and treatment works are developing systems to reduce incoming levels to levels acceptable for drinking water.

Case Study 61 Mollusc Biofilters Rhode Island USA

Increasing the local population of suitable shellfish, possibly in artificial aquaculture units, could contribute to a significant reduction in turbidity and improved removal of nitrogen and other nutrients. One of the main advantages of this approach would be that the waters are continually cleaned and at little or no cost. In addition, the system might also be harnessed to offer a boost to the local economy, providing a crop to be harvested or potentially supporting larger commercial ventures.

Geographical distribution and host range

Hexamita salmonis has been reported in fishes in North America, Europe and Asia. It is usually found in freshwater fishes but it has also been reported from marine fishes (Becker, 1977 Mo et al., 1990 Buchmann etal., 1995). The disease is most commonly found in fingerlings, although yearlings and smolts may also show clinical signs of the infection. Outbreaks of the disease are usually sporadic in aquaculture facilities, and they have seldom been reported in wild fishes (Allison, 1963 Uzmann and Hayduk, 1963 Becker, 1977 Mo et al., 1990).

Fish Diseases With References

Alvarez-Pellitero, P., Sitja-Bobadilla, A. and Franco-Sierra, A. (1 993) Protozoan parasites of wild and cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), from the Mediterranean area. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24, 101-108. Benetti, D.D., Leingang, A.J., Russo, R., Powell, T.M., Cleary, D., Grabe, S.W., Feeley, M.W., Stevens, O.M. and Main, K.L. (2001) Development of aquaculture methods for southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma II. Nursery and grow-out. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 11, 135-146. Carneiro, P.C.F., Martins, M.L. and Urbinati, E.B. (2002) Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and the gill parasite, Piscinoodinium sp., in matrinxa, Brycon cephalus (Telostei Characidae) subjected to transport stress. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 1 7, 337-348. Fajer-Avila, E.J., Abdo-de la Parra, I., Aguilar-Zarate, G., Contreras-Arce, R., Zaldivar-Ramirez, J. and Betancourt-Lozano, M. (2003) Toxicity of formalin to bullseye puffer fish (Sphoeroides...

Microorganisms In Shellfish

Shellfish is composed of crustaceans (shrimp, crabs, lobster, crawfish, etc) and mollusks (bivalves, squids, snails, etc). Shellfish normally contains more moisture, greater amount of free amino acids, and more extractable nitrogenous compounds than finfish. These biochemical characteristics facilitate bacterial growth and deteriorative reactions resulting in the rapid spoilage of shellfish (27). Many shellfish grow in estuarine, coastal waters, and aquacultural ponds near residential areas and are hence susceptible to contamination by potential pathogenic organisms. Deterioration of shellfish quality results from enzymatic action from both the tissue and the contaminating organisms. Microorganisms that spoil shellfish are similar

The Research Requirement

Although there has been a recent increase in research effort into echinocul-ture, the technology developed for many species outside of Japan has thus far largely been at a research scale and it is likely to require some adaptation to allow commercial operations. Being able to guarantee a supply of seed (juveniles) for on-growing underpins any successful aquaculture operation, and seed supply may prove to be a bottleneck initially as the growing industry scales up. Not all the technologies developed so far (and in particular diet formulations) may be totally transferable between species, and further refinements will be needed.

Environmental Considerations

Echinoculture is now poised to expand at a time when globally the aquaculture industry is receiving bad publicity, accused of a range of negative environmental impacts. Therefore, to succeed, echinoculture must develop effectively in a framework of increased legislation affecting businesses operating in the marine environment. This may provide the incentive for polyculture of sea urchins or sea cucumbers with other species that feed at different trophic levels. In such systems, the echinoderms, feeding on uneaten feeds, detritus or seaweeds grown on waste nutrients from the polyculture systems, may serve to reduce the environmental impact of the aquaculture activity (Hagen 1996 Kelly et al. 1998 Shpigel et al. 2004).

Economic Considerations

It is a general trend that aquaculture operations for marine species do not start until the (wild) fished stock has been diminished to a point where earnings and lifestyle of the people involved are affected (Robinson 2004b). When wild stocks decline, the demand created in the market place raises the price of the product and consequently culturing is more likely to become viable economically. As this review of culture methods has shown, there have been dramatic advances in the culture methods of sea urchins and sea cucumbers in the last 10-15 years, to the extent that one can conclude that currently the major obstacles to successful cultivation are indeed economic rather than biological. For example, it is the cost of producing seed, infrastructure for grow-out systems and artificial diets for growing juveniles to market size rather than the technical difficulty of these operations that will constrain the growth of the industry. At present, it is the reseeding operations that are...

Contemporary Food Supplies and Diets for the Cities

Staples that provide the bulk of energy and protein. For reasons of sanitation and zoonotic diseases, as well as waste disposal, domestic livestock in the cities are a much more remote option, although aquaculture with treated waste waters could provide for fish, crustaceans, and mollusks toward meeting the protein needs of urban populations.

Goals Of Agriculture Research

The overall goal is to improve reproductive efficiency of livestock, poultry, and aquaculture species. Research will focus on improving reproductive performance of animals through genetics, nutrition, and health management and on management of environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Research advances and new biotechnologies will be developed Animal Gene Bank Repository. The purpose of the animal gene bank repository is to develop long-term storage space for sperm, embryos, oocytes, stem cells, cell lines, and DNA from designated genotypes covering a wide range of domestic animal species and aquaculture. An important component of this program is to establish a national committee on cryopreservation to work with species committees. This national committee will establish priorities for genetic material to be maintained in repositories and will define long-term storage requirements for this material. Aquaculture Program Rationale. With increasing...

Bioreactor Configurations 341 Submerged Fermentor Systems

Bioreactor Parts

Microalgae have been used successfully, with high productivity compared to higher plants. The high productivity in these systems is due to the high biomass produced in the bioreac-tor. Microalgae have been used for preparation of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants, and fatty acids, and as feed for aquaculture. The cultivation techniques employed are open systems and closed or semiclosed outdoor photobioreactors. The common photobioreac-tors used are tubular-type and plate-type reactors (42). The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied in batch and continuous photobioreactors under varying conditions of incident light energy and nutrient limitations (43).

Ara Acid Microalgae Mysore

Nutritional value of spray dried Tetraselmis succica for juvenile bivalues. Aquaculture 92 207-218, 1991. Sommer, T.R., W.T. Pott, N.M. Morrissy. Utilization of microalgal astaxanthin by Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 94 79-88, 1991.

Emerging Viral Diseases of Fish and Shrimp

Generally, aquaculture plays an important role in economy as harvests from natural waters have declined or, at best, remained static in most countries. Fish and shrimp, the main aquaculture product sources, have gained the most attention. Many factors can cause losses in yields of fish products and infectious disease in fish and shrimp is the biggest threat to the fishery industry. Among various causative agents of fish and shrimp diseases such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and so on, viruses are one of the most destructive pathogens. Until now, approximately 60 different viruses have been detected in fish. This chapter describes 25 viral diseases (caused by 29 different fish viruses) which have been classified according to virus families, and has described in detail 5 extensively studied emerging fish diseases namely infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), channel catfish virus disease (CCVD), infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), infectious salmon anemia (ISA) and...

Vitamins and Minerals

One use for an encapsulated vitamin provides such a major product improvement with an accompanying economic advantage that it merits special comment. The aquaculture industry has grown enormously in the last decade. The key to maintaining the health of pond-grown fish is in proper feeding. A number of nutrient supplements are added to fish rations, but one stands out prominently in any discussion of the applications for microencapsulation technology. Fish must ingest vitamin C in an adequate dosage for survival. Fish along with humans, apes, guinea pigs, and the fruit bat lack the enzymes required to synthesize ascorbic acid from protein consumed in their diet. Using raw ascorbic acid for feed fortification requires 5-10 times the level recommended in the normal diet offish because oxygenated water is used in all three of the basic

Water Sources And Quality

Sources of water for aquaculture include municipal supplies, wells, springs, streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and the ocean. The water may be used directly from the source or it may be treated in some fashion prior to use. through activated charcoal filters or through the use of sodium thiosulfate metered into the incoming water at the proper rate. Municipal water is usually not used in aquaculture operations that require large quantities of water, either continuously or periodically, because of the initial high cost for the water and the cost of pretreatment to remove chlorine. Most aquaculturists, if asked, would probably indicate a preference for well water over other sources. Both freshwater and saline wells are common sources of water for aquaculture. The most commonly used pretreatments for well water include temperature alteration (either heating or cooling) aeration to add oxygen or to drive off or oxidize such substances as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and iron and...

Most Commonly Cultured Species

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most-produced fish in the global aquaculture industry, with Norway and Chile being two of the largest producers. In 1980, only 10,000 tonnes were produced globally, but by 2010 it is expected that over 2 million tonnes will be produced. 1 Marine net pens are the most commonly used culture system, and production reached 1.4 million tonnes in 2002. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are the most widely cultured fish in the United States, representing approximately 50 of that country's aquaculture industry (roughly 600,000 a year). Channel catfish are a popular finfish and are most often grown in ponds, although small farmers can grow the fish successfully in cages. It may not be unreasonable to state that more is known of the nutrient requirements of the channel catfish than any other fish species in the world. Production is estimated to be 305,000 tonnes in 2003. 2 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a member of the family Cyprinidae and is...

Nutrition And Feeding

Provision of live foods is currently necessary for survival of the early stages of many aquaculture species because acceptable prepared feeds have yet to be developed. Algae is routinely cultured for the early stages of mollusks produced in hatcheries. Once the mollusks are placed in grow-out areas, natural productivity is depended on to provide the algae upon which the shellfish feed. In cases where zooplankton are reared as food for predatory larvae or fry, it may be necessary to maintain three cultures (algae, zooplankton, and the desired aquaculture species). Though wild zooplankton have been used successfully in some instances (eg, in Norway, wild zooplankton have been collected and fed to larval Pacific halibut), it is much more common practice to provide rotifers or brine shrimp nauplii as zooplanktonic food for first-feeding stages of animals being reared for marketing. After being fed rotifers and or brine shrimp nauplii for periods ranging from several days to several weeks,...

About the Editors

Milligan is a researcher with the Marine Environmental Sciences Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. As head of the Particle Dynamics Laboratory at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography he leads the group's research into the behavior of fine particulate material in aquatic environments. He received his B.Sc in geology and M.Sc in oceanography from Dalhousie University and has been involved with flocs for over 30 years. While his initial contact was in pulp mill effluent, it was the time spent with the late Dr. Kate Kranck, a pioneer in flocculation studies in the marine environment, that gave him his love of mud. Areas of interest include the mechanisms governing the loss of sediment from river plumes, the effect of flocculation on the transport and fate of contaminants, and environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas and aquaculture. Mr. Milligan has led research projects in a wide range of geographical areas, from the Amazon to the Canadian Arctic. While his work...


In nations where fish are produced for recreational fishing, funding for hatcheries is often raised from user fees such as fishing licenses. Such hatcheries are usually government facilities. For most private aquaculture companies to get started, outside funding is required. Funding may come through banks and other commercial lending sources or from venture capitalists. The high risks associated with aquaculture have made it difficult for many firms to obtain bank loans, although that situation is changing as bankers become more knowledgeable and comfortable with underwriting aquaculture ventures. Large corporations have also entered the aquaculture field. Some have abandoned aquaculture after a few years, but others continue to diversify into the arena. Highly profitable corporations may have an easier time obtaining the requisite funding for establishing aquaculture ventures than small entrepreneurs. A key factor in obtaining funding support for aquaculture is development of a sound...


The extent to which governments regulate aquaculture varies greatly from one nation to another. In some parts of the world, particularly in developing nations, there has historically been little or no regulation. Inexpensive land and labor, low taxes, excellent climates, and a lack of government interference have drawn many aquaculturists to underdeveloped countries, most of which are in the tropics. Unregulated expansion of aquaculture in some countries has led to pollution problems and destruction of valuable habitats such as mangrove swamps and has enhanced the spread of disease from one farm to another. The need for imposing more restrictive regulations is now becoming evident around the world. Response to that need varies considerably from one nation to another. Environmental problems associated with aquaculture have become a global phenomenon. In Japan, previously unrestricted development of net-pen culture of various kinds of marine fish in bays led to what was termed...


Aquaculture's origins are ancient, but the explicit application of engineering to aquaculture is very recent. Only during the last 20 to 30 years has there been visible research activity in this field. This activity has accelerated recently fueled in part by the newly formed Aquacultural Engineering Society (AES, c o The Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 1746, Shepherdstown, WV 25443). The AES is an international organization bringing together individuals interested in the engineering applications to aquaculture. Although the number of aquacultural engineering practi-


Aquacultural engineering is the application of engineering principles to the design, construction, and management of systems for the production of aquatic animals or plants. Specific areas covered include the overall system design and management the physical system used to hold the animals or plants the supporting structures processes, monitoring equipment, and techniques needed to ensure an adequate environmental quality in the production system and the facilities and equipment needed to handle fish* and other materials such as feed. As a research discipline, aquacultural engineering also deals with the evaluation of the effects of water quality and other environmental conditions on fish, as well as the effect that fish have on the water. Effects on the fish that are of concern include growth rates, susceptibility to disease, and reproductive success. An area of increasing concern is the potential environmental impact of aquaculture operations, and aquacultural engineers are being...

System Design

An aquaculture system must be designed to provide a healthy environment for the target fish or plant, and this must be achieved within constraints inherent in the choice of location where the facility is to be constructed. Other considerations that need to be taken into account include marketing, economics, and regulatory restrictions. The procedure for the development of an aquaculture system is summarized in Figure 1 and follows stages of data collection, evaluation, design, and construction (1,2). Background information needed includes data on the biological (or bioengineering as they are sometimes referred to) characteristics of the target species, as well as data on the site, possible markets for the product, and regulations affecting aquaculture at the chosen site. The biological data needed to quantify the relationship between the target organism and its environment include information on tolerances and optimum levels for various water quality parameters, the effect of target...

Solids Removal

Removal of solids produced by aquaculture may be attempted for making the water suitable for reuse, or to meet discharge guidelines. Solids account for a high percentage of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in aquaculture effluents they tend to be highly variable in size and break up easily if subjected to mechanical forces. Solids are formed from uneaten feed and fecal material. Their density tends to be very close to that of water. Removal is achieved by filtration with particulate (eg, sand) or microscreen (eg, stainless steel) filters, or by sedimentation (25). The high organic content of the particulates make them highly biodegradable, and filters need to be backwashed frequently to prevent clogging by a mat of biological slime. Screen filters are common in aquaculture and a number of filters have been developed that incorporate some form of automated cleaning (eg, drum or disk filters). Simple settling tanks or ponds with overflow rates between 40 and 80 m d_1 can result in...


A new production system has been developed recently that makes use of the water-treating and oxygen-producing capabilities of ponds. The system has been called the Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS) (16) and An important difference between aeration systems used for aquaculture and those used in water and wastewater treatment is that the driving force (DOSat DO) in aquaculture tends to be lower, reducing the rate of oxygen transfer for a given aerator. The lower driving force is caused by the requirement of most fish for dissolved oxygen concentrations above 3 to 4 g m-3, compared with the usual limit of just above zero in wastewater treatment. Common types of aerators used in aquaculture may be classified as surface, gravity, and diffuser types (5,9,19). Surface aerators spray water into the air or beat the water, increasing the turbulence and area of contact between the water and air. Gravity aerators rely on the fall of water for aeration. Different types of structures such as...

Unique Aspects

Aquaculture includes a wide diversity of species raised in diverse aquatic environments that include freshwater, brackish, and marine systems (Table 1). 2 Aquaculture products are farmed for food consumption, for sportfish-ing, for bait, for clothing (alligator skins), for pets (ornamental fish and feeders), and for industrial processes (seaweeds for agar and carrageenan). 5 Polyculture is an appealing concept that maximizes production by stocking different species in the same pond, thus exploiting various trophic levels in a pond environment. Aquaculture is limited by the nature of aquatic organisms and the medium of their water environment. Unlike all other domesticated livestock, fish and invertebrates are cold-blooded and require a narrow temperature range for good growth. In water, gravity is nearly overcome by the buoyancy of the medium, reducing energy expended in daily movements. Oxygen is a limiting factor because it is relatively insoluble in water. Depending on temperature...


Aquaculture production occurs in ponds, raceways, cages, rafts, baskets, lines, recirculating systems, and by ocean and reservoir ranching. 5 The majority of finfish and crustacean production worldwide occurs in earthen ponds, Capture Fisheries Aquaculture Fig. 1 Volume of capture fisheries and aquaculture production. (Figure courtesy of Ref. 2 .) Capture Fisheries Aquaculture Fig. 1 Volume of capture fisheries and aquaculture production. (Figure courtesy of Ref. 2 .) Species that are good aquaculture candidates 1) are easy to reproduce in a controlled fashion 2) accept prepared feeds 3) are hardy 4) tolerate a wide range of water quality conditions and 5) have high market value. Seed for aquaculture production often closely resembles its wild counterpart. Although some carp strains have undergone selective breeding for decades, there has been little genetic improvement of most aquaculture stocks. Recent bioengineering advances have come under intense scrutiny by those opposed to...


Aquaculture products are sold live, fresh, frozen, canned, smoked, salted, pickled, and dried. Fish are processed as whole-dressed or fillets, fresh (packed on ice), or frozen in blocks for wholesale markets or individually quick-frozen (IQF) . Crustaceans are sold head on or off, peeled, or shell on. There is increasing interest in expanding value-added offerings beyond the traditional breaded and glazed products. Rapid processing and preservation are necessary because fish and shellfish spoil easily. As poikilotherms (cold-blooded organisms), fish contain enzymes that function at relatively low temperatures, which leads to the rapid decomposition of harvested fish. Table 1 Worldwide aquaculture production of selected species and groups for 2001, in metric tons Aquaculture total, excluding seaweeds 37,590,066 Aquaculture total, including seaweeds 48,152,345


Unlike animal and row crop agriculture, aquaculture growers find themselves competing in the marketplace with wild-caught seafood products. Salmon and catfish are two examples of aquaculture products whose supply has grown to surpass that of the wild catch. Market channels reflect the local nature of seafood product availability and historically have tended to involve small-scale jobbers that fulfilled wholesaling and transportation functions. In more recent years, major seafood distributors have consolidated and supply chains have become more globalized as major buyers source seafood products from around the world. In retail markets, seafood marketing margins typically are high (25 35 ), reflecting a premium for risk of spoilage and the luxury nature of most seafood in the United States. Trade in aquaculture products has acquired an important international focus. Shrimp is a global commodity, with over 8.4 billion traded internationally each year. More than 27 of the shrimp traded...


(Becker, 1977 Lawler, 1980 Lauckner, 1984 Noga, 1996). It causes serious morbidity and mortality in brackish and marine warmwater food fish at aquaculture facilities worldwide (Table 2.1) and is often considered the most consequential pathogen of marine fish (Paperna et al., 1981). Outbreaks can occur extremely rapidly, resulting in 100 mortality within a few days. A. ocellatum is also a major problem in aquarium fish (Nigrelli, 1936 Brown and Hovasse, 1946 Hojgaard, 1962 Dempster, 1972 Lawler, 1977b), including both public aquaria and hobbyist tanks. It has also very rarely caused natural epidemics, best documented in fish of the Salton Sea, a hypersaline inland lake in eastern California, USA (Kuperman et al., 2001).


The signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), which originated in California, is believed to have the most potential for farming in temperate climates (74), but other crayfish, such as the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricar-inutus), are reported to have good potential for aquaculture (75-77). However, presently, the single most commercially exploited species is the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. This species accounts for about 85 of world production (78). Most commercial crayfish are produced in Louisiana in culture ponds and natural habitats (79). Procrambarus spp. burrow in the mud of pond or swamp banks during the summer as water levels recede. Females lay their eggs and attach them to their pleopods, where they remain until hatching in 2 to 3 weeks. In the fall, when water levels rise, adults and the young of the year emerge from the burrows and into the water. The young of the year grow rapidly and can attain marketable size (65 mm total length) in 2 to 3 months...


Seafood remains the only substantial item of human diet a large part of which is still hunted, apart from small quantities of game. Aquaculture now provides substantial quantities of farmed salmon, tilapia, catfish, and trout to supplement the declining productivity of most fishing grounds. Wild seafood often occurs in greatest abundance at short seasons of the year and in areas remote from human populations desirous of consuming them. Several species (herring, cod, mackerel, and hake) are migratory, often present in concentrated shoals and in good eating condition for only a few months of the year. A preservation method is required to preserve them from the time of catching until ultimate consumption perhaps several thousands of miles away and several months later. Traditional methods such as salting, drying, and pickling (in either acid or alkali) have been largely supplanted by freezing. Aquaculture of salmon, catfish, trout, shrimp, mussels, and oysters relies almost exclusively...

Subject Index

Amino acids 207,213,214,217 amoebocyte 88 amputation 180 analytical techniques 183 antibacterial activity 2 anticholinergic compounds 61 anticoagulant 258 antimicrobial compounds 155 antitumoral protein(s) 259 apextrin 24 apurinic sites 126 apyrimidinic sites 126 aquaculture 158 arm regeneration 171 artificial diet 148 asexual reproduction 170 asterosaponin 255 attachment complex 208,210 autotomy 212 axial organ 90 sustainable aquaculture 157


The chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is one of the most prized fishes on the west coast of North America. It is also one of the most important commercial species. The chinook salmon is known as the tyee or king salmon when the body size reaches greater than 13.6 kg. This fish has the largest body size of the Pacific salmons. While 13.6 kg is more common as the maximum size, the world's record is 57.3 kg. It is this characteristic combined with its high market value that has made it a popular choice for aquaculture in the northwestern states and on the west coast of Canada. There are two varieties of chinook salmon, the red chinook and the white chinook, which are named according to their flesh color. The red flesh commands the higher price. This segregation is rather unique among the salmon. Chinook salmon are caught commercially with trolling gear, purse seine or gill nets, long lines, and fish wheels. The majority are caught by trollers. Chinook salmon are...

Culture Systems

At one extreme, aquaculture can be conducted with a small amount of intervention from humans and the employment of little technology. At the other extreme, aquaculture involves total environmental control and the use of computers, molecular genetics, and complex modern technology. Many aquaculturists operate between the extremes. The range of culture approaches can be described as running from extensive to intensive, or even hyperintensive, with extensive systems being relatively simple and intensive systems being complex to very complex. In general, as the level of culture intensity increases, stocking density and, as a consequence, production per unit area of culture system or volume of water increase. The most extensive types of aquaculture involve minimal human intervention to promote increases in natural productivity. One good example is the scattering of cultch material to provide substrates for oyster spat settlement as previously described. A second is the stocking of water...

Minor Fish Species

Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) has the most northern distribution of any freshwater fish species and is common in the Arctic and subarctic regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. It is a relatively new aquaculture species that, as yet, does not have much production. However, it is easy to culture, has wide consumer acceptance, and should return a fairly high price to producers. Bluefin tuna (Southern, Thunnus maccoyii Northern, T. thynnus). The southern bluefin tuna is being developed as an aquaculture species in Australia, and the northern bluefin tuna is being grown in the Mediterranean, North America, and Japan. Tuna is grown primarily in large marine net pens. In Australia, tuna is caught from the wild, transferred to marine net pens, and cultured until attaining market size. In 2002, approximately 9000 tonnes of Southern bluefin tuna was grown to market size in Australia (personal communication Dr. Geoff Allen, Australia). European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is highly...

Fish Immune System

Fish Immune Organ

It is important to realize that among the Vertebrata, the class Pisces has within it the oldest and most numerous species. The most recent and evol-utionarily advanced group of fish, and the one of most commercial importance, is the teleosts (bony fish), which first appeared in the late Devonian Age, 300 million years ago, and rose to prominence 70 million years ago. Now they are the most numerous with over 20 000 extant species (compared with the 4500 species of mammals) occupying very diverse aquatic habitats. It is to be expectcd, therefore, that interspecies differences will exist in the immune system of fish. Most of the available information appertains to the teleosts, and in particular to a few species of commercial importance in aquaculture. Differences among these species are not considerable and this entry presents a generalized picture of the teleosts only, there being no attempt to draw attention to anatomical, cellular or molecular differences which exist between teleosts...


See Escherichia coli Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Federal Republic of Germany (FG). See Germany Feeder cattle Feeding aquaculture livestock feeds livestock production Feeding tankage Feeding tubes Feedlots Feijoa Feints Fennel seed Fenugreek Fermentation See also Yeast alcoholic beverages amino acid production baked goods beer black tea breadmaking cheese

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