How to Mix Essential Oils

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Read more...

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Spices and Their Essential Oils

Spices are roots, bark, seeds, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants added to foods as flavoring agents. It has been known since ancient times that spices and their essential oils have varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. Cloves, cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and, to a lesser extent, sage and rosemary have the strongest antimicrobial activity among spices. The major antimicrobial components of clove and cinnamon are eugenol (2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol)and cinnamic aldehyde (3-phenyl-2-propenal), respectively. Cinnamon and clove extracts or their essential oils inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus, Enterobacter aerogenes, lactic acid bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus in microbiological systems and in foods (8). Bullerman (83) observed that cinnamon in raisin bread inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cinnamon and clove were the most effective of 16 ground herbs and spices tested at 2 w v against nine mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus and...

Applications of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of essential oils and cosmetics against oxidation

Essential oils are not lipids because they do not contain bound fatty acids, but they are as easily oxidized as lipids are and their oxidation proceeds along similar lines. Many essential oils contain components resistant to oxidation or even possessing antioxidant properties, but other essential oils are very sensitive to oxidation, especially citrus essential oils. During their oxidation, citrus odour notes disappear, and intensities of woody, acidic and heavy odour notes develop (Pokorny et al., 1998). Limonene was found to be the most sensitive compound and herbal oleoresins were efficient in its stabilization (Lee and Widmer, 1994). During the oxidation of bergamot oil at 40-60 C, sensory acceptability decreased but rosemary extracts inhibited oxidation and minimized the odour changes (Pudil et al., 1998). Similar activity was also observed in Citrus hystrix essential oil, where the rosemary extracts were also found to be efficient. Methanolic extracts of herbs and spices were...

Herbal treatments and essential oils

Some activity against lice and their eggs has been identified in vitro, and in uncontrolled studies, both for essential oils and their constituent terpenoids.12, 30-33 We found no systematic reviews, RCTs, or cohort studies evaluating herbal treatments or essential oils for head lice, and no evidence of drawbacks, although a potential for toxic effects has been recognised for several essential oils.30

Breathing Your Way to Feeling Better Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy may sound like it belongs on the perfume counter, but this approach isn't just about sniffing different odors. Aromatherapy utilizes the essential oils of plants both for their scent and for their medicinal properties. These aromatic oils can be extracted from the seeds, bark, leaves, flowers, wood, roots, or resin of a plant. Experts don't see aromatherapy as a cure for endometriosis but as an aid to strengthening the body's immune system to heal itself. Some of the oils for endometriosis, touted to decrease adhesions and help heal the body, include the following You may want to consult with an aromatherapy expert in your area ask your local health food store for the names of knowledgeable people. Just remember that aromatherapy isn't a state-licensed or regulated practice.


Aromatherapy is a branch of the alternate medicine approach that uses herbal remedies to improve an individual's health and appearance and to alter one's mood. The alleged benefits from aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of emotions from past experience. The concept has ancient roots but is primarily used today by the cosmetics, fragrance, and alternative-medicine industries. The proponents of aromatherapy claim that the tools of the trade, such as wood-resin distillates and flower, leaf, stalk, root, grass, and fruit extracts, contain antibiotics, antiseptics, hormones, and vitamins. Some proponents go even further and have characterized the essential oils, which are volatile, aromatic, and flammable, as the soul or spirit of plants. One of aromatherapy's promises is that the essential oils have a spiritual dimension and can restore balance and harmony to one's body and to one's life. One of its principles is the doctrine of signatures,...

Essential Oils

The antimicrobial activities of extracts from several types of plants and plant parts used as flavoring agents in foods and beverages have been recognized for many years. Some of these essential oils have antifungal properties. Conner and Beuchat (1984) documented the effects of garlic and onion against yeasts and other investigators have shown these extracts to be inhibitory to molds. Alderman and Marth (1976) examined the effects of lemon and orange oils on Aspergillus flavus and found when the citrus oils were added to grapefruit juice or glucose yeast extract medium at concentrations of 3000-3500ppm, growth and aflatoxin production was suppressed. When orange oil was added to either medium at concentrations up to 7000 ppm, growth and aflatoxin production were greatly reduced although still evident. Recent publications have reported that the essential oils of anise, coriander, Roman chamomile, basil, and oregano were inhibitory to food and industrial yeasts (Chao et al. 2000...

Natural antimicrobials from plant sources

Major components of naturally occurring antimicrobials in plants can include those present in the intact plant and those released due to infection or injury. Components present in intact plants include alkaloids, dienes, flavonols, flavones, glycosides, lactones, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and protein-like compounds (Lopez-Malo et al., 2000). Post-infection inhibitors may include isothiocyanates, phenolic compounds, phytoalexins and sulfoxides (Lopez-Malo et al., 2000). Of greatest potential as food antimicrobials are compounds from spices and their essential oils. Additionally, compounds from the Allium family, the Cruciferae or mustard family and phenolic compounds have shown some potential.

Using natural antioxidants in food

The main guideline is that natural antioxidants are preferred to synthetic antioxidants only insofar as the consumers prefer them, and people feel that humans became adapted to them over the many generations they were consumed. Only food components, and not all natural substances should be accepted for use in foods. Material Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) can be added to foods without limitations. The best application of antioxidants is the direct addition of the respective ingredients, found as active antioxidants, to food without any previous fractionation or concentration herbs and spices belong to this group. Some simple fractionation could be used, e.g., extraction of the oil fraction and utilization of the extracted meal, or distillation of the volatile essential oils, and the use of the nonvolatile residue.

Occurrence And Organoleptic Properties Of Heterocyclic Compounds In Food

Furans are mainly associated with caramel-like, sweet, fruity, nutty, meaty, and burnt odor impressions. Because of their olfactory properties, many furans are commercially important flavoring chemicals. Furans are formed in food by thermal degradation of carbohydrates and by the Maillard reaction. They are almost present in all food aromas and essential oils. The most abundant furans are 2- and 2,5-disubstituted, such as 2-methylfuran, which is found in coffee aroma. The 2-substituted furans with aldehyde, ketone, or alcohol functional groups generally have fruity aromas with the mild flavor of caramel when added in small amounts to nonalcoholic beverages and ice creams. 3-Acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran is used in imitation nut flavors (Fig. 13).

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

- essential oils and natural extracts While essential oils and natural extracts, which are obtained from natural resources by various processes, mainly constitute complex mixtures, aroma chemicals are uniform compounds, which can be both of natural or synthetic origin. A number of representatives of frequently used aroma chemicals show an enormous discrepancy between synthetic and natural material. Raspberry ketone shall be used as an example here for the year 1992, an estimated yearly worldwide consumption of 400 kg of natural material is countered by the 300-fold amount of synthetic material which found industrial usage 8 . Formulated flavours and fragrances are complex blends of aromatic materials such as essential oils, aroma chemicals and natural extracts. Depending on their intended usage and the type of flavour release envisioned by product design, they are available in concentrated form, diluted in solvents or bound to carriers. Essential oils Essential oils

Thyme And Antimicrobial Applications In Food

Most essential oils of spices and herbs are generally regarded as safe and are considered to contain the antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts, including spices and essential oils, has been reviewed (56). Carvacrol and thymol are major volatile components of oregano, thyme, and savory. Generally, the thymol carvacrol ratio in thyme is 10 1, whereas the carvacrol thymol ratio in oregano is 20 1 (57). Carvacrol and thymol are known to have 1.5 X and 20 X the antimicrobial activity of phenol, respectively (8). In 1960, Ka-tayama and Nagai (58) reported the antimicrobial activity of thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli (serotype not given). Similarly, Beuchat (59) in 1976 reported that the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was delayed by the presence of 100 ppm of the essential oils of oregano and thyme. In 1989, Farag et al. (60) reported that of six essential oils examined (sage, rosemary, cumin, caraway,...

Herbs and spices as sources of antioxidants

The antioxidant activity of spices has been known for 50 years (Chipault et al., 1956). Spices from other parts of plants than leaves are used for conditioning meats and bakery products some among them are efficient inhibitors of oxidation, such as savory, oregano, spearmint, lavender, nutmeg, allspice, etc. The most active substances are produced from rosemary - Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Chang et al., 1978), which is the only commercially available antioxidant from spices, and from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Both of them contain carnosol and carnosic acid as active substituents (Cuvelier et al., 1996 Richheimer et al., 1996). Herbs and leaves efficiently stabilize French fries (Korczak, 1992). Not only non-volatile resins from spices, but also volatile essential oils from different spices are active as antioxidants. After their removal, the remaining non-volatile fraction (a resin) has mainly lower antioxidant activity than the original material. Gingseng and sweetgrass,...

Plant phenolics in human health and as antioxidants

It is evident that plant phenolic compounds constitute one of the most numerous and widely distributed groups of substances with more than 8000 phenolic structures currently known (28). In addition to stress linked phenolics coming only from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways, a number of the phenolic compounds are found in plants, including the flavonoids that contribute to the characteristic flavor and fragrance of vegetables, fruits, tea, and wine. These compounds, which come from phenylpropanoid and polyketide (acetate-malonate) pathways, also have biological properties that are beneficial to human health. Flavonoids such as quercetin and catechin and isoflavonoids, genistein for example, are being investigated for properties which may reduce the incidence of cancer (22,23). Flavonoids and isoflavonoids are a class of phenolic compounds that have appeared sequentially during plant evolution and are simple aromatic compounds generated from both the phenypropanoid and...

Extraction of Liquids

Steam distillation is based on an aceotropic or carrier-gas distillation of two immiscible liquids. Due to the unfavourable ratio of vapour pressures and thus of mole fractions in the distillate, large amounts of water must be evaporated for the separation of small amounts of essential oils. This is connected to long distillation times at around 100 C and a considerable thermal stress leading to the formation of artefacts, oxidation and isomerisation to a certain extent. Moreover the water itself can be a reactant and hydrolyse terpene esters that make up the core of a flavour terpene alcohols remain partially dissolved in the water and thus are lost from the essential oil. All this can modify the essential oil composition and change the original typical flavour impression. Other disadvantages are enzymatic processes especially during the heating-up phase of the water giving some off-flavours and cooking notes. Last but not least some chemicals are often added to the water in order to...

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient Greece and Rome the medieval era led to an extended use of herbs and spices. In the Renaissance the studies of Lavoiser, Davy, Dalton, Priestly, Scheele and others laid the foundation for modern chemistry 3 . Finally, in the industrial age the curiosity of chemists revealed the chemical nature of numerous flavouring substances. The so-called great cycle of the chemical industry - identification - laboratory synthesis -large-scale synthesis and commercialisation - introduced important aroma...

Applications identifying flavour compounds

The volatile components present in the Citrus peel essential oils largely belong to terpene compounds. Mono and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons together with several oxygenated derivatives, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and epoxides, are the main compounds. Depending on the particular species and cultivar a more or less significant amount of isoprenoid compounds can be present, the main components being alcohols, esters and aldehydes of aliphatic origin (Table 9.2.). Shaw (1979), Caccioni et al. (1998) and Dugo et al. (1999) list the components detected by various gas-chromatographic methods in the essential oils of some of the most important Citrus species, namely blond and blood sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) lemon (C. limon L. Burman), mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort ex Tan.) grapefruit (C. paradisi MacFaden), bergamot (C. bergamia Risso) lime (C. aurantifolia Christm. Swing) and the fruit of...

Natural Flavouring Substances Manufactured by Physical Processes

Physical processes (see chapter 2) for isolation of natural flavouring substances include distillation, solvent extraction (including supercritical carbon dioxide), and chromatography. Major sources are essential oils. These may be derived from various parts of aromatic plants such as fruits (e.g. citrus, fennel), fruit parts (e.g. mace), flowers (e.g. safflower), flower parts (e.g. saffron), flower buds (e.g. clove), bulbs (e.g. onion), barks (e.g. cinnamon), leaves (e.g. basil), leaves and twigs (e.g. mandarin petitgrain), rhizomes (e.g. ginger), roots (e.g. angelica), and seeds (e.g. mustard). Tab. 3.4 lists some natural flavouring substances that are isolated from essential oils by physical processes. Cinnamic aldehyde and benzaldehyde have been isolated as early as 1834 and 1837, respectively. Table 3.4 Selection of flavouring substances isolated from essential oils by physical methods Table 3.4 Selection of flavouring substances isolated from essential oils by physical methods

Forms And Applications

The common form of both essential oils and oleoresins is an oil-dispersible liquid. Because most foods contain a high amount of water, homogenous distribution is difficult. Concentrated products are required in small dosages to achieve the desired effect, making it doubly difficult to ensure consistency. To overcome these difficulties, various means have been developed to incorporate the extractives into commercial products 1. Dispersed products (dry-soluble seasonings) are prepared by dispersing the essential oils and oleoresins on an edible carrier salt, dextrose, or flour. Limited in concentration by the ability of the carrier to remain flowable, these blends can incorporate up to 10 liquids. 4. Encapsulation (spray drying) forms products in which essential oils or oleoresins are homogenized into water with vegetable gums or food starches, then atomized into a drying chamber. The resultant dry powder may contain up to 20 liquids, with the encapsulation providing some increased...

Elite Basil For Postharvest Preservation Of Potatoes

Preliminary studies conducted in several laboratories in the world indicate that naturally occurring plant extracts and natural compounds have demonstrated sprout inhibitory and antimicrobial properties (63-67). Several volatile monoterpenes that are primary components of essential oils inhibited sprouting when introduced as volatile into head space surrounding the potato tuber (66). Dimethyl-napthalene (DMN) and diispropylnapthalene (DIPN) applied as thermal fog successfully suppressed sprouting under current storage conditions (68). DMN is reported to be a constituent of volatile released naturally by potatoes in storage (69,70). Storage diseases of potatoes cause millions of dollars of loss each year. Fungicides are available to control some of the storage diseases, but none of the compounds currently registered for use function as sprout suppressants (63). Helminthosporium solani, the fungus that causes silver scurf on potatoes, caused a 8.6-million-dollar loss in 1992 1993 (71)....

Manufacturing Process

Unlike the essential oils, where only the volatile notes are available for aroma and flavor effect, oleoresins contain the volatile fraction, active compounds and fixed compounds. The volatile fraction is very similar in composition to the previously discussed essential oils. The active compounds are defined, for the purpose of this article, as the nonvolatile constituents perceived predominantly in the mouth and not by the nasal membranes. To give a few examples, these compounds are the pungent alkaloid group related to piperine in black pepper and white pepper, the amide group related to capsaicin in capsicums, and the keto-alcohols related to gingerol in ginger. The fixed compounds are defined as the nonvolatile, nonpungent compounds. Examples of these are coloring compounds, such as chlorophyll found in herbs, cartenoids found in capsicums, and curcuminoids found in turmeric. The fixed compounds also include various saturated and unsaturated fats, which lend balance to the flavor...

Ethical And Legal Issues

Alternative medicine covers a dizzyingly heterogeneous group of medical theories and practices. Alternatives range from the different forms of faith healing, Christian Science, and folk medicine to allegedly scientific systems like homeopathy, chiropractic, and visualization therapy. Also included under the term are acupuncture herbalism iridology the traditional medicines of India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and indigenous peoples holistic medicine naturopathy (treatment using agents or elements found in nature) shamanism yoga radiesthesia (therapy based on detection of natural waves of force emanating from nature) color healing aromatherapy transcendental meditation crystal therapy thalassotherapy (treatment based on sea bathing, sea voyages, etc.) massage therapy midwifery and many others. Certain shared negative elements justify lumping together such diverse medical theories and practices. They include marginal social standing or fringe status exclusion from mainline...

Applications for the stabilization of lard and meat products

Animal fats contain no natural antioxidants or only traces, therefore the application of antioxidants is very useful. Fortunately, the content of oxylabile (sensitive of oxidation) polyunsaturated fatty acids is relatively low, at least in fats of land mammals, so that even small amounts of antioxidants are very efficient. Butter is among the fats very sensitive to off-flavours. Even when the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids does not exceed 4-8 , their oxidation would deteriorate the flavour. Tocopherols may be added to cream before churning or may even be added to the feed to enrich milk fat with tocopherols. Other efficient antioxidants are spice extracts, especially rosemary oleoresin or ethanolic extract of rosemary leaves, Even essential oils from thyme, cumin and other spices act as preservatives against both oxidation and microorganisms (Farag et al. 1988). Maillard products, which are often naturally present in foods containing butter, can improve oxidative stability...

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

In addition, commercial activity or interest has been reported at over thirty companies including some end users of the technology, equipment suppliers and engineering companies. The activity is generally in the areas of extraction of spices, essential oils, oils and fats, cholesterol, flavours, pharmaceutical materials, and in supercritical fluid chromatography. All these process applications illustrate the wide range of applications of extraction with supercritical fluids in process industries. Excellent compilation for the use of supercritical fluid extraction are published from time to time. These give the status of the technology viz., laboratory scale, pilot plant scale or commercial scale. Brunner and Peter (1982), Randall (1982), Paulitis et al (1983) have presented some of the earlier exhaustive reviews. Koerner (1993) has given a listing of the pilot plants and commercial plants for supercritical fluid extraction. Table 1 highlights the use of supercritical fluid extraction...


The 1950s and 1960s were intense years in the polyene biosynthetic field because steroid and carotenoid biogenesis followed similar pathways. Thus when mevalonic acid (MVA) was discovered it was a breakthrough for both groups. The use of stereospecific 14C -and 3H mevalonic acids incorporated into cell-free systems provided a valuable tool for studying biosynthetic conversions. Acetyl-CoA may be considered the starting point in terpene biosynthesis. As can be seen in Figure 2, two acetyl-CoA molecules condense to form acetoacetyl-CoA. This in turn condenses to form the branched six-carbon acid -hydroxy- -methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA). Through a series of reactions, HMG-CoA can also be formed from leucine (18). HMG-CoA is reduced from the dicarboxylic acid to a monoacidic-monohydroxyl compound, MVA. For most systems, MVA once formed cannot be converted back to HMG-CoA. MVA in the presence of ATP is converted to MVAP and then to MVAPP. With a third ATP, MVAPP is converted to...


The examples discussed above clearly demonstrate that CO2-extraction is a more gentle procedure than steam distillation. The smaller processing stress widely avoids the formation of artefacts. Therefore CO2-extracts often have a better efficacy or a richer aroma profile reflecting the complete flavour or fragrance spectrum of the herbal raw material. This is also confirmed in the literature where professional fla-vourists have compared the aroma profiles of CO2-extracts, essential oils and oleores-ins for a range of different spices 7 . Moreover CO2-extraction is carried out under precisely standardised and controlled conditions which allow reproducible results. Since CO2-extracts have their own character different from the usual distillates, they are new and powerful means for flavourists and food technologists to modify, improve or boost existing products or to create new premium flavour qualities.

Plant Catalysts

A physical stimulus to secondary metabolism in plant cells has been neglected for a long time light. Although not always sufficient, the cytodifferentiation from heterotrophic to phototrophic cells induced the formation of leaf-typical constituents, such as pigments, quinones, and essential oils. Chlorophyll formation in the presence of light is tied to a preceding formation of phytol this diterpenoid alcohol in turn can only be formed if the initial steps of the mevalonate pathway are operating. The accumulation of the intermediate lower terpenoids along this route is then to be expected. In addition to light a fine-tuning of the phy-toeffector concentrations in the growth medium is mandatory to support both growth and aroma formation, as was shown with illuminated callus cultures of Citrus (96). These cells accumulated a full spectrum of volatile terpenes, and the best yields were about 5 of the volatiles isolated from a mature tissue of the mother explant (grapefruit peel Table 8)....

Gum Arabics

Gum arabic also has the unique property of being an effective emulsifier of flavor oils plus an effective stabilizer of the resulting emulsions. It is often used in the preparation of baker's emulsions of citrus and other essential oils. Another major application is in the preparation of dry fixed-flavor powders, which are prepared by adding citrus oils and other fruit or imitation flavors to gum arabic solutions and spray drying the resulting emulsions. Some gum arabic is also used in the preparation of confectioneries and lozenges.

Citrus fruits

Citrus essential oils, which contain a large number of volatile components, notably high levels of limonone, exert radical scavenging effects against DPPH, where the essential oil of the Korean lemon variety Ichang lemon, Tahiti lime and Eureka lemon were found to be especially strong radical scavengers on DPPH in vitro.44 Individual volatile components of citrus, notably terpinolene, geraniol

Location of Flower

Soil, topography, and climate not only influence the quality of wine but can also greatly affect the quality of a flower's scent. The biochemical processes that produce essential oils have been shown to be markedly affected by conditions where the flower is grown (29). This study showed that factors such as light, temperature, moisture, and nutrition affect the metabolic processes that produce the essential oils. This must be taken into consideration in scent collection strategies and comparative studies. The strong influence of environment on the flower's scent is the main reason why scientists should study flowers in their natural habitat (30).

Regulatory Status

In the United States, Title 21 of the CFR governs usage of spice extractives in foods and drugs. Under part 182.20 and part 184 are listed the essential oils and oleoresins that are considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and their requirements. Oleoresins used as vegetable colors are listed under separate headings of part 73. Under part 173, the maximum residue for the solvent used in extraction is as follows It is not possible to generalize the nutritional value of essential oils or oleoresins. Nutritional information is available from the manufacturer for individual products. In foods, the weight percentage of these added flavor ingredients does not usually make a significant contribution to overall nutrition. Essential oils, because they are both ether soluble and combustible, assay as fat. Oleoresins contain the natural vegetable oils extracted with aroma and flavor components, predominantly unsaturated fats normally found in vegetable sources. Carriers, emulsifiers,

Fats And Oils

Of foods that generate products which can be either desirable or deleterious to their flavor profile (Nawar 1996). Controlling these reactions requires a knowledge of both lipid chemistry and emulsion science (Frankel 1991, Frankel et al. 1994, Coupland and McClements 1996). The taste and aroma of food emulsions are also governed by the partitioning of flavor compounds between the oil, water, interfacial, and gaseous phases (Chapter 9). The oil phase may also act as a solvent for various other important food components, including oil-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, preservatives, and essential oils. Reducing the fat content of an emulsion can therefore have a profound influence on its flavor profile, stability, and nutritional content.


Ethnic food products are always popular. Everyone is looking for the next hot trend. Table 4 lists five basic ethnic flavors and the spices needed to create them. By first formulating a base product, such as a marinade, with the proper amount of salt, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, sugar, gum or starch, phosphate, and so on, the spices listed in Table 4 can then be added and balanced to produce the desired flavor of the finished product. It should be noted that seasonings not only use the natural spice for flavor but also oleoresins and essential oils to produce a product with the exact profile desired.

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