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Please find below a list of common abbreviations used throughout this book.

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH antidiuretic hormone

AF atrial fibrillation

ALI acute lung injury

APC activated protein C

ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARF acute renal failure

AS aortic stenosis

ATLS Advanced Trauma and Life Support ATN acute tubular necrosis BE base excess

BiPAP biphasic or bilevel positive airway pressure

BP blood pressure

BUN blood urea nitrogen

CAVH continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration CBF cerebral blood flow CO cardiac output

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CPAP continuous positive airway pressure

CPP cerebral perfusion pressure

CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CT computed tomography

CVP central venous pressure

CVVH continuous venovenous haemofiltration

DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation

DO2 oxygen delivery

DVT deep vein thrombosis

ECF extracellular fluid

EFW electrolyte-free water

ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram

FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen

FVC forced vital capacity

GCS Glasgow Coma Scale

Hb haemoglobin

HDUs high dependency units

HES hydroxyethyl starch

HR heart rate

ICF intracellular fluid

ICP intracranial pressure

ICU Intensive Care Unit

IPPV intermittent positive pressure ventilation

LIDCO lithium dilution and arterial waveform analysis

LP lumbar puncture

LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

MAP mean arterial pressure

METs medical emergency teams

METS metabolic equivalents

MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

NIV non-invasive ventilation

NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

OSA obstructive sleep apnoea

PAF platelet-activating factor

PAO2 or PACO2 alveolar partial pressure of oxygen or carbon dioxide

PaO2 or PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen or carbon dioxide

PAOP pulmonary artery occlusion pressure

PE pulmonary embolism

PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure

PiCCO transpulmonary thermodilution and arterial pulse contour analysis

PSV pressure support ventilation

RRT renal replacement therapy

SAH subarachnoid haemorrhage

SaO2 arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin

SID strong ion difference

SIMV synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation

SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SV stroke volume

SVR systemic vascular resistance

SVRI systemic vascular resistance index

TBI traumatic brain injury

TBW total body water

TF tissue factor

TNF tumour necrosis factor

TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

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Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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