Successful fluid resuscitation is integral to the management of the critically ill patient. However, volume status can sometimes be difficult to assess. This makes it vitally important to have an effective strategy to define both trigger points to institute therapy and endpoints when the goal of therapy has been reached. Trigger points are based on a thorough assessment of the patient including history and examination. History alone can point to likely hypovolaemia, for example bowel obstruction, sepsis, burns, pancreatitis, and trauma. Markers of inadequate circulating volume include:
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