Further reading

American College of Cardiology practice guidelines: perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for non-cardiac surgery. www.acc.org/clinical/ statements.htm.

Berlauk JF, Abrams JH, Gilmour IJ, O'Connor SR, Knighton DR, Cerra FB et al. Pre-operative optimisation of cardiovascular haemodynamics improves outcome in peripheral vascular surgery. Ann Surg 1991;214:289-97.

Boyd O, Grounds RM, Bennett ED. A randomised clinical trial of the effect of deliberate peri-operative increase in oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients. JAMA 1993;270:2699-707.

Chassot P-G, Delabays A, Spahn DR. Pre-operative evaluation of patients with, or at risk of, coronary artery disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2002;89:747-59.

Del Guercio L, Cohn J. Monitoring operative risk in the elderly. JAMA 1980;243:1350-5.

Goldman L, Caldera DL, Nussbaum SR et al. Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in non-cardiac surgical procedures. New Engl J Med 1977; 297:845.

Juste RN, Lawson AD, Soni N. Minimising cardiac anaesthetic risk: the tortoise or the hare? Anaesthesia 1996;51:255-62.

Shoemaker WC, Czer LS. Evaluation of the biologic importance of various haemodynamic and oxygen transport variables: which variables should be monitored in post-operative shock? Crit Care Med 1979;7:424-31.

Sinclair S, James S, Singer M. Intra-operative intravascular volume optimisation and length of hospital stay after repair of proximal femur fractures: a randomised control trial. BmJ 1997;315:909-12.

Wilson J, Woods I, Fawcett J et al. Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised control trial of pre-operative optimisation of oxygen delivery. BMJ 1999;318:1099-103.


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