The largest single cause of perioperative death is cardiac related. Cardiovascular disease affects 25% of the US population. Much work has been done to try to assess cardiovascular risk before surgery as perioperative myocardial infarction carries a 30-50% mortality. There are five main types of cardiac disease that present before surgery:
• ischaemic heart disease
• heart failure
• valvular disease
• cardiac arrhythmias especially atrial fibrillation
The greater the cardiovascular stress during surgery, the greater the risk of cardiac complications (Table 10.1).
Was this article helpful?