Assertiveness Training

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Always wondered if you could use assertiveness and equality in your relationships and in your life? Here are some great information on how to be more assertive! Do you want to improve your career and the amount of money that you bring home? Do you want to break all the sales records in your office? Do you want to bring home more money? Do you feel as though you are just short of reaching all of your goals?

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Personality Differences by Gender

Young people are expected to be reserved, quiet, and obedient. As they age, they become more assertive. More men than women speak Portuguese, and men are notably more assertive in interactions with non-Indians. Both men and women report being possessed by spirits, and shamans treat them. Sometimes this occurs when individuals have spent long periods of time outside of the reservation or when they have consumed alcoholic beverages, something that men experience more than women. However, possession can also take place in the reservation.

Cultural Construction of Gender

The ideal Hmong woman of one or two generations ago was nurturing, patient, forbearing, industrious, mature, quiet, and not given to gossip. She modestly avoided joking, or even talking, about sex. When faced with a serious tragedy, such as the death of loved ones, she displayed great emotion, but muted her feelings when dealing with the aggravating problems of everyday life. Rather than being assertive, she tended to withhold opinions that might contradict the views of others, particularly those of male leaders. Most of these qualities continue to be valued by Hmong in the United States, but the ascent of women into public positions of authority reflects a trend toward greater gender equality with respect to opinion sharing and problem solving (see Donnelly, 1994 Rice, 2000 Symonds, 1991).

Categorization Theory

Factor analytic approach typically begins with a large number of scores derived from tests, then applies a statistical technique to such surface scores to determine the underlying basic factors whose operation theoretically accounts for the variation in the large number of initial scores. Once the basic factors are identified, the theorist can then develop ways of measuring the factors in a more efficient manner. Thus, factor analysis is a procedure in which variables may be formulated to account for the diverse complexity of surface behaviors. Personality is defined by Cattell as that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation (Cattell, 1950, p. 2), and is considered to be a complex and differentiated structure of traits ( mental structures inferred from observed behavior). Cattell distinguishes between the concepts of surface traits - clusters of overt variables that have common aspects, such as a syndrome of behaviors, and source traits - underlying...

Anger Management Interventions

What is needed then is training in problem solving, assertiveness, and communication skills related to effective conflict resolution. Certainly, the probability that these skills will be implemented is enhanced when the accompanying emotional arousal is managed effectively. Otherwise, the intense anger often experienced by those with patterns of aggressive responding will disrupt or perhaps prevent the execution of more prosocial skills.

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Points to the conclusion that, despite the dramatic changes that have taken place during the past 100 years, gender roles and practices have been characterized by an essential continuity. Men and women are both assertive and engaged in advancing their own interests, and both take active roles in new public institutions such as church, school, and sports clubs. Although attenuated, polygyny is still practiced, and the ideal of brother-sister exchange marriage remains, although the extent to which it is currently achieved is not known. There is some evidence that the role of affines has increased in importance while

Acceptance of Controlled Drinking

Initially, several additional components of BSCT (basic alcohol education, goal setting, functional analysis of drinking behavior, generation of coping strategies to be employed in high-risk drinking situations) were employed to help him moderate his drinking. Although the quantity consumed per drinking day decreased compared to baseline, neither J. nor his therapist was satisfied with the impact of these techniques on his drinking. Following an explanation of the rationale and procedure of CET with a moderation goal, J. agreed to a trial of CET. Sessions increased to twice per week for the next 5 weeks One session each week was devoted to cue exposure and the other session was devoted to working on J.'s non-drinking-related difficulties. (During and following CET, self-esteem, relationship issues, and assertiveness were addressed using a supportive, rational-emotive therapy-based, problem-solving approach. Specifically, the therapist and client engaged in role-play, therapist-guided...

Treatment Procedures And Formats

Skills and (c) a related tendency to respond impulsively to both external and internal stimuli, which has also been described as an inability to regulate emotion and behavior (Lochman et al., 2000). Accordingly, the child-focused CBT approach to treating child conduct problems targets the disturbed cognitive processes and behavioral deficits thought to produce aggressive and disruptive behaviors. They help the child identify stimuli that typically precede aggressive and antisocial behaviors and perceive ambiguous social situations in a nonhostile manner, challenge cognitive distortions, generate more assertive (versus aggressive) responses to possible social problems and develop more effective problem-solving skills, and tolerate feelings of anger and frustration without responding impulsively or aggressively (Nock, 2003). Several CBT approaches have been developed to address these goals, such as problem-solving skills training, anger-coping training, assertiveness training, and...

Empirical Studies

Recent survey studies have explored shared values and perspectives of feminist therapists and how these values may differentiate their work from therapists who do not define themselves as feminist. Judith Worell, Redonna Chandler, and colleagues found that self-identified feminist or woman-centered therapists were significantly more likely than nonfeminist therapists to endorse the following behaviors affirming the client, adopting a gender-role perspective, valuing woman-centered activism, using therapist self-disclosure, and displaying an egalitarian stance. In 2000, Bonnie Moradi and colleagues compared the reported behaviors of feminist therapists and those who did not identify themselves as feminist. A factor analysis of feminist therapy behaviors revealed three major themes (1) an emphasis on gender role analysis and the personal is political, (2) empowerment through respecting individual differences and focusing on strengths, and (3) valuing behaviors such as assertiveness and...

Description Of Treatment

Group psychotherapy is a widely used treatment modality. However, there are many types of groups for different conditions and often several models of groups for a particular condition. This makes a description of the field somewhat complex, and even the term group therapy relatively lacking in meaning except that several people are meeting together. Group psychotherapy is widely used as an intensive treatment modality to address psychological issues especially those involving unsatisfactory interpersonal patterns. Group therapy is also used in a more structured manner to address negative cognitions, to learn skills such as assertiveness, and for psychoeducational purposes. This wide range of group applications involves the use of groups that are conducted in quite different ways.

Witkins Perceptionpersonalitycognitive Style Theory

The disorder (cf., resolution law - attempts to find a partial explanation of behavioral modification whereby the changing of one physiological state into another one becomes easier and quicker after it has taken place a number of times and stages of change theory - suggests the following steps be used to gain the self-control required to change an undesirable behavior pre-contemplation of the advantages and consequences of the change, contemplation of benefits, preparation and action, and maintenance of the change). Wolpe indicates that variables such as food, expression of aggression, and sexual feeling might work, also, to reciprocally inhibit avoidance behavior or anxiety feelings. Wolpe's work on the direct re-education of sexual behavior foreshadowed W. Masters and V. Johnson's widely publicized sexual-response studies, and his emphasis on expression of feeling anticipated the procedure of assertiveness training. See also ALL-OR-NONE LAW PRINCIPLE BEHAVIOR THERAPY COGNITIVE...

Objections to an Ethic of Care

Since the publication of In a Different Voice, the proposal to develop a feminine ethic of care has met with a variety of concerns and objections. One set of concerns is that a feminine ethic of care may unwittingly undermine feminism. These concerns stem, in part, from a belief that the qualities in girls and women that feminine ethics esteems have developed within the context of a sexist culture. Thus, some suspect that women's competency at caring for and serving others is an outgrowth of their subordinate status within modern societies (Sherwin Moody-Adams), and worry that emphasizing caring as a virtuous feminine quality may simply serve to keep women on the down side of power relationships (Holmes). Susan Moller Okin, for example, cautions that women are often socialized from a very early age into strict gender roles, involving caring for and serving others. This socialization radically limits their future prospects by diminishing women's capacity to choose alternative life...

Evolutionary Perspectives

The complexity of neural regulation of aggression in mammals is driven in part by the existence of several distinct subtypes of aggressive behavior. For each subtype, aggressive acts are triggered, targeted, promptly terminated, and specifically inhibited by distinct classes of environmental stimuli. Ethologists have advanced several typologies of aggressive behavior, with each class demonstrating a specific outward display and set of determining stimuli. Moyer's widely recognized classification scheme divides hostile behavior into predatory, territorial, intermale, maternal, defensive, fear-induced, irritable, and instrumental subtypes (Table I). In various animal models, neuronal recording and lesion studies have identified important loci participating in neural networks controlling these discrete assertive behaviors (Table II). Evidence for broadly similar clustering of aggressive behaviors into an impulsive-reactive-hostile affective subtype and a subtype has been reported among...

Christine Maguth Nezu and Michelle A Peacock

In 2000 (Rush & Frances, 2000), practical clinical guidelines based on expert consensus and relevant research for treating persons with mental retardation suffering from major mental disorders were developed to assist clinicians in treatment decision making. Applied behavior analysis, managing the environment, and client and family education were the most highly recommended psychosocial treatments for many disorders including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, substance abuse and substance dependence, as well as target symptoms such as self-injurious behavior, aggression, and pica. CBT (e.g., anger management, assertiveness training, conflict resolution) was recommended as a first-line option for major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and symptoms of anxiety. CBT was also recommended as a second-line option for bipolar disorder (manic phase), schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, generalized...

Theoretical Bases

It is assumed that behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are interrelated. For example, negative thoughts about ourselves may interfere with expressing and acting on our feelings (e.g., initiating conversations, answering questions in class). These thoughts and lack of action may, in turn, create anxiety or feelings of depression because of a loss of positive consequences or negative consequences. If we speak up (assert ourselves) and acquire valued consequences in situations in which we were reticent in the past, this makes it easier to act on future occasions because we are less anxious. Joseph Wolpe emphasized the importance of reciprocal inhibition that is, if we engage in a response that is incompatiable with anxiety in a certain situation, this will countercondition anxiety reactions and it will be easier to perform this opposite type of response in the future. Speaking up rather than not saying anything was viewed as one kind of incompatiable response (i.e., to anxiety). Research...

Personalityjob Fit Theory

(cf., role theory of personality - describes personality development as the gradual acquisition of roles as prescribed by a particular social unit or culture doctrine of cultural determinism - states that environment, culture, and the combined aspects of a given society's economic, political, social, and religious organization determines personality to a greater degree than do hereditary factors the current big five model ofpersonality traits that identifies the basic five factors in personality as extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience and the little thirty traits that are specific personality traits associated with the big five factors, where each of the latter is described by six traits on which it loads most heavily e.g., extroversion is associated with warmth, positive emotions, sociability, activity, excitement-seeking, and assertiveness) (3) psycho-dynamic psychoanalytic theories, which characterize personality by the integration...

Nature And Nurture In Aggressive Behavior

Patients with acquired brain lesions represent a distinctive, and informative, population. When focal injuries disrupt the neural networks that regulate aggression, hostile behaviors may appear that have no relevant developmental or environmental precipitant or only minimal social provocation. More often, damage to neuronal systems controlling assertive behavior leads not to random acts of overt aggression but to alterations in temperament and inappropriate choices of targets and settings for aggressive behavior. Studies correlating loci of focal injury and patterns of altered aggressivity afford unique insights into the neural architecture responsible for implementing and inhibiting hostile behavior.

Using FAP to Improve Cognitive Therapy for Depression

It will be helpful for us to focus on our interaction if you have issues or difficulties that come up with me which also come up with other people in your life (such as co-workers, acquaintances, supervisors, friends, spouses). When one expresses one's thoughts, feelings, and desires in an authentic, caring and assertive way, one is less likely to be depressed.

Coping And Adjustment

Communication skills training may be indicated to help clients and families express and communicate affective states to each other, friends, family members, or members, of the health care team. Assertiveness training using role-playing may be particularly helpful for rehearsing the effective communication skills that are needed to ensure one's needs are being met, to modulate affect. Using the previous example, a patient who determines she is angry because of lost vocational roles may need to communicate a desire for increased responsibility in the day-to-day functioning of the family as a means of promoting feelings of usefulness, thereby reducing anger.

Cbt For Emotional Distress

In general, with regard to enhancing cancer patients' emotional well-being, the trend has been to evaluate the efficacy of multicomponent protocols that include a variety of CBT strategies. For example, Telch and Telch (1986) found a group-administered multicomponent CBT coping skills training protocol, composed of relaxation and stress management, assertive communication, cognitive restructuring and problem solving, management of emotions, and planning pleasant activities, to be superior to a supportive group therapy condition. A landmark multicomponent CBT-based investigation was conducted by Fawzy and his colleagues (Fawzy et al., 1990) and included patients who were newly diagnosed with malignant melanoma. The 6-week CBT intervention was comprised of four components health education, stress management, problem-solving training, and group support. At the end of the 6 weeks, patients receiving the structured intervention began showing reductions in psychological distress as compared...

Paternal and Maternal Parenting and Outcomes in Sons and Daughters

Researchers have also found ethnic variations in gender-related outcomes of paternal behavior. For example, McAdoo's (1993) research of African American families suggests that middle-income African American fathers tend to demand immediate obedience, suppression of children's feelings, and constraint of children's assertive and independent behavior. However, Baumrind (1972, 1991) found African American fathers to exhibit a combination of firm control, warmth, and encouragement of autonomy in her observational study of African American and European American fathers' interactions with preschool children. African American and European American fathers exhibited similar expectations concerning the behaviors of sons, encouraging their independence, while African American fathers tended to discourage independence or individuality in daughters. Nevertheless, Baumrind found that these same African American daughters were actually independent and positively involved in social interactions at...

Kelleys Cube Modeltheory

Kelly's major theoretical concept is the construct, which refers to a bipolar way of interpreting and perceiving events. For instance, the construct dimension of good-bad is used often by individuals as they assess events and other people. Examples of other constructs - where the bipolar terms are not necessarily the logical opposite of each other - are receive-give, take-give, unassertive-assertive, hate-love, and lust-love. When a construct becomes part of an individual's cognitive structure, it may be applied to anything or anyone. Kelly distinguishes among different types of constructs core constructs (such as weak-strong ) versus peripheral constructs (such as humorous-serious ) verbal versus preverbal constructs and superordinate versus subordinate constructs. An individual's personal constructs are organized to form a construct system ranging from a simple system (containing only one or two levels of organization) to a complex system (containing multiple...

Husband Wife Relationship

Yet the image of the self-abnegating Swati wife is not really accurate. Although trained to submit to men, women also are taught to assert themselves. As a result, the ideal of absolute wifely subservience is rarely found in reality. Some assertive women manage to drive their henpecked spouses into the men's house. A few even acquire lovers, knowing their weak husbands will not dare to take revenge. More commonly a wary truce is arrived at, as the wife has sons and comes to identify herself more and more with her husband's lineage.

Outcome Research On Cbgt

Lutgendorf and co-workers in 1997 conducted a study of gay men diagnosed with HIV seropositive status to measure the psychological and immunological effects of a cognitive-behavioral stress management group (which could also be classified as CBGT) (n 22) versus a wait-list control (n 18). The CBGT group met for weekly 135-minute sessions that consisted of didactic components explaining physiological effects of stress, stress-immune associations, cognitive-behavioral theory of stress and emotions, identification of cognitive distortions and automatic thoughts, rational thought replacement, coping skills training, assertiveness training, anger management, identification of social supports, group discussion of personal examples, and homework.

Acute Care And Rehabilitation Settings

Inpatient rehabilitation programs often offer some form of patient and family education, but participants' educational needs persist long after their return to the community. Problems with attention, motivation, pain, and subjective stress may hinder education. Team members often refer patients with problems that disrupt therapeutic agendas (e.g., inappropriate interpersonal behaviors, pronounced mood disturbance) for psychological interventions. Individualized CBT may be employed to address these issues brief, strategic interventions are more likely to be useful and valued by patient and staff (e.g., motivational interviewing, relaxation training, problem-solving skills training). Interventions that compete with required treatment hours in PT and OT may conflict with team goals, and patients may have difficulty appreciating these interventions at the expense of prescribed rehabilitation therapies. CBT groups in the inpatient setting may be more time-efficient in delivering a...

Psychological Treatments For Depression

The primary goal of most behavior therapies is to increase the amount of pleasurable activity in patients' lives. Patients learn to monitor the fluctuations in their mood over the course of the week. They are taught to note what events produce positive changes in mood and what events bring about negative changes in mood. The therapist and patient then attempt to institute changes in the patient's life that would bring about more positive mood states. In situations in which the patient lacks the skills necessary to bring about changes in behavior, the therapist and the patient work together to enhance these skill deficits. Social skill training, relaxation skills, and assertiveness training are all examples of skill-building exercises in which patients may engage.

Cognitivebehavioral Interventions

Cognitive-behavioral interventions have been used with caregivers to improve time management, coping, problem-solving skills, assertiveness, relaxation, positive experiences, and self-care, and to decrease distorted thought processes regarding the caregiving experience. Regardless of the specific technique or modality utilized, the fundamental goal of these interventions is to decrease distress and to improve the caregiver's ability to cope with the multifac-eted caregiving challenges and role changes, improve their sense of control, and overall quality of life. Many of these interventions can be offered in individual, group, or family modalities, and with or without the care recipient present, depending on the nature of individual concerns.

Overview Of Intervention Applications

General behavioral target areas common to most caregiving populations include increasing coping skills, problem-solving skills, time management, prosocial and health behaviors, relaxation, assertiveness, and communication skills. Cognitive targets may focus on decreasing mal-adaptive thoughts and beliefs in connection with feelings of depression, anxiety, or guilt, and increasing positive coping and self-efficacy or self-affirming statements. Services may be structured as therapy, support, psychoeducation, respite, self-enhancement, or a combination of these approaches. Interventions may focus on interpersonal (social isolation, competing work, family, and recreational demands) or intrapersonal (finances, emotional and physical well-being, changes in identity or future goals and expectations) variables, preexisting stressors or problems further complicated by the caregiving role, symptom management, and grief and loss issues. Contrary to many theorists' and researchers'

Case Illustration

In our sessions Kim came to see how the belief I'm too much affected major aspects of her emotional and interpersonal existence. This was especially evident in how she experienced her relationships with men and the type of contact she could have with them. She saw that with her husband, she made no demands, rarely got angry, and focused her attention on his needs to the exclusion of hers. Our work included Kim experimenting with new ways of interacting with her husband such as being more assertive with her needs. Initially this made her anxious. As we worked with the anxiety and she realized the responses she feared were not likely ways that Bill would respond to her, she became less anxious and more excited and playful with the possibilities of being bolder about asking for things she wanted. This affected all aspects of their relationship including their sexual relationship.

Phase 3 Physical Aggression

The third level of behavior that may be encountered is that of true physical aggression and assertive behavior. The patient is totally out of control, and no amount of verbal intervention is effective. The physically aggressive patient must be confronted and controlled physically, not only for the safety of the emergency department personnel, but for the safety of the violent patient, other patients, and visitors in the department. Only when all other interventions have failed and once the decision has been made to restrain, no further negotiation is warranted. Physical control of a patient may require personnel skilled in overcoming a person without injury to self or others. Physical control should never be attempted single-handedly and should preferably be deferred to a trained individual. It is important to remember that a health care provider has a duty to evaluate a patient's needs. Restraint, in some situations, is only fulfilling that duty. Using appropriate and nonharmful...

Neuropsychology Defined

The affective trend in behavior therapy owes much to the early work of Joseph Wolpe, M.D. (1958), the South African psychiatrist who is credited with the establishment of clinical behavior therapy. His techniques of systematic desensitization and assertiveness training have, in large part, sparked the clinical behavior therapy movement.

Psychoeducational Format

Special psychoeducational group programs can be designed for groups of participants who have shared life issues. Many GCT programs develop written materials, often combined in a folder or notebook that is presented on admission to the unit program to help participants learn skills in an orderly sequence. Perhaps one of the best models for this is Mind Over Mood (Greenberger & Padesky, 1995) and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder (Freeman & Fusco, 2004). Social skills practice, assertive-ness training, and other behavioral skills can be introduced, practiced, and assigned as homework.

Cognitivebehavioral Therapy Interventions For Anger Problems

Social skills training has also received empirical support for the treatment of anger problems. In these studies, the social skills training tends to focus on global social skills such as listening, assertive self-expression, and negotiating resolutions to conflicts. However, angry individuals may also benefit from modifying microbehavioral aspects of their social interactions such as facial expressions, vocal intonation, voice volume, body postures, and gestures. Other interventions designed to enhance social functioning may also be needed for angry clients to repair the damage their anger has done to their social functioning.

Differences in Personality

Are women more emotional They clearly are readier to express feelings and admit dependence. They are also readier to demonstrate interpersonal caring, sensitivity, and warmth. Spence and Helmreich (1978) described the dichotomy of orientations in females and males as communion versus agency. Communion is the tendency to be concerned about closeness to others, while agency is the tendency to be self-interested and assertive. It has been suggested that the feminine (not simply female) voice adheres to a calculus of development through attachments and connectedness, rather than growth through separation and substitution (Thompson, 1991, p. 391). In most cultures males are less nurturant and less emotionally expressive (D'Andrade, 1967), while women are more submissive and passive, anxious, and dependent (Garai & Scheinfeld, 1968).

Homework Assignments

After needed skill and comfort levels are attained, assignments, graded in accord with client comfort and skill levels, are agreed on to be carried out in the natural environment. Assignments are selected that offer a high probability of success at a low cost in terms of discomfort. Careful preparation may be required if negative reactions may occur in real life. A clear understanding of the social relationships in which assertive behavior is proposed is needed to maximize the likelihood of positive consequences and minimize the likelihood of negative outcomes when assertive behaviors are used. For example, a parent may be likely to become verbally abusive if his son makes certain requests. This possibility should be taken into account (e.g., by encouraging behaviors unlikely to result in abuse, or by using some other form of intervention such as family counseling). Coping skills should be developed to handle possible negative reactions before asking the client to carry out new...

Mobile Detection and Engagement One Solution to Delay and Poor Access

Care and assertive outreach, can be provided. Although YAT is part of a comprehensive early psychosis programme, this model can be successfully introduced within more generic service systems. For example, a similar model operating in Stavanger, Norway, the early detection (ED) team, has helped to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis dramatically 31 .

Sex Differences in Personality that Are Relatively Stable across Cultures

Feingold (1994) examined cross-cultural norms for the PRF, a test related to the NEO PI-R described above. The norms came from Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Poland, and Russia. Overall, males scored significantly higher than females on the facet of Assertiveness and females scored higher than males on facets reflecting Impulsivity, Tender-Mindedness, and Order. Costa et al. (2001) examined cross-cultural modifiers of sex differences in the facets of the NEO, reporting that men across cultures (e.g., Zimbabwe, Peru, Belgium, Croatia) score higher on scales of Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas while women score high on scales reflecting Neuroticism, Warmth, Agreeableness, and Openness to Feelings. Contrary to what might have been predicted on the basis of the assumption that culture creates or constructs sex differences, the sex differences observed were strongest for cultures with the most progressive sex role ideologies. This finding is also reported by Greenberger, Cheng, Tally,...

An Overview of Sex Differences in Personality

Differences between men and women are evident on scales designed to measure sex role identification. Differences for these scales occur in the obvious direction (males are more Masculine, females more Feminine) in part because of the way in which the scales were created. Sex differences are also present in scales measuring aspects of personality not directly related to sex roles. Men, in comparison with women, obtain scores which indicate that they are more Assertive, less Anxious, have higher Self-Esteem and a greater sense of agency (Internal Locus of Control). On the basis of a meta-analysis of the norms for commonly used personality inventories including the MMPI, Cattell's 16 PF, and the NEO PI-R, Feingold (1994) reached several broad conclusions as to sex differences in personality. Scales from all tests were realigned with the facets of the NEO Personality Inventory. Feingold (1994) concluded that, by and large, females scored higher than males on scales addressing Anxiety (a...

Efficacy Of Cbt With Aggressive Youth

Meta-analytic reviews have yielded medium to large effect sizes (ESs 0.47 to 0.90) for this treatment approach for child conduct problems. Five child-centered CBT treatments have been identified that met criteria for probably efficacious status, including anger-control training, anger-coping training, assertiveness training, problem-solving skills training, and rational-emotive therapy. These treatments await systematic replication by a second research team before advancing to well-established status (Bennett & Gibbons, 2000 Brestan & Eyberg, 1998).

Social Skills Training

SST has also been used to treat the behavioral aspects of depression. One specific form of SST is assertiveness training, the goal of which is to teach the skill of defending one's own rights in a way that does not violate others' rights. The typical passivity and apathy observed in persons with DD justifies the need to consider assertiveness training however, without system reform in the course of social role valorization, trained skills may not be functional if they are not reinforced. It is hoped that the assertive efforts of the self-advocacy movement have effected some progress in this area.

Efficacy Of Cognitivebehavioral Therapy With Aggressive Youth

Meta-analytic reviews have yielded medium to large effect sizes (ESs 0.47 to 0.90) for this treatment approach for child conduct problems. Five child-centered CBT treatments have been identified that met the criteria for probably efficacious status including anger-control training, anger-coping training, assertiveness training, problem-solving skills training, and rational-emotive therapy. These treatments await systematic replication by a second research team before advancing to well-established status (Bennett & Gibbons, 2000 Brestan & Eyberg, 1998).

Puberty and Adolescence

Owing to the earlier onset of puberty (compared with the parents' generation) many parents see their children still as little ones when in fact they are adolescents. The blurring of the differences in the behavior of young age groups under the influence of media is the most significant trend in German society. Peers are more important than the family when it comes to dealing with the specific changes of puberty. A remarkable development is that it has become more acceptable for girls to be more aggressive, while boys are expected to be less so. Although the so-called girlie (young woman behaving and dressing in a self-assured girls just wanna have fun manner) was a short fad, and positively judged as postfeminist , at the end of the 20th century, self-assertive behavior has survived to a certain degree. Pubescent boys feel insecure and sometimes dominated by girls, partly because girls of their own age tend to prefer to date older boys. The gap between boy and girl becomes wider...

Cognitive Restructuring Changing What Clients Say to Themselves

Thoughts relevant to assertive behavior include helpful attributions (casual accounts or behavior), realistic expectations ( I may not succeed no one succeeds all the time ), helpful rules ( when in doubt think the best ), self-reinforcement for efforts to improve and positive consequences, problem-solving skills, and accurate perception and translation of social cues (e.g., noting and accurately interpreting a smile as friendly). In addition, cognitive skills (e.g., distraction) are involved in the regulation of affect (e.g., anger or anxiety). Unrealistic beliefs (such as I must always succeed ) and other kinds of thoughts such as negative self-statements that get in the way of assertive behavior should be identified and replaced by helpful self-statements and beliefs. This process is initiated during assessment and continues during intervention. Discussion of beliefs about what is proper assertive behavior and who has what rights Self-management aspects of assertive behavior...

Cross Cultural Studies of Masculinity Femininity

Using a different methodological approach to examine masculinity femininity, Hofstede (1980, 2001), compared work-related values in 40 countries. Attitude survey data from thousands of employees of IBM, a large multinational high-technology business organization, were examined. One scale that Hofstede derived in his analyses concerned the extent to which values of assertiveness, money, and things prevail in a society rather than the values of nurturance, quality of life, and people. While this scale could have easily been named Materialism, Hofstede named it Masculinity (MAS) because male employees assign greater weight to the first set of values whereas females assign greater weight to the second.

Behavioral Interventions

Behavioral approaches to pain management refer to skills such as relaxation training, pain monitoring, activity scheduling and monitoring, distraction techniques, assertiveness training, and problem solving. To provide some immediate relief from pain, the client can be taught a series of relaxation techniques early in therapy, including deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation (tensing and relaxing different muscle groups in the body), guided imagery (e.g., imagining a safe place, a place that is free from pain and stress beach or nature scenes), hypnosis (e.g., imagining relaxation moving into different parts of the body), and or biofeedback. Sometime, during the course of therapy, clients learn assertiveness training skills. Learning how to communicate openly and directly without offending others is a very important skill for this client population given the number of health care professionals involved in their care. In addition, other people may not understand how clients...

Deborah Slalom and E Thomas Dowd

Since excessive gambling has such a detrimental effect on relationships, pathological gamblers often find they are isolated from others. Gamblers must work to regain trust from others and essentially prove they have changed. Not only is this difficult, but often gamblers are challenged by repeated invitations to gamble, particularly from past gambling partners and establishments. This is why social skills training is important. Gamblers are taught how to interact and communicate with their families and friends and are also taught assertiveness training to aid them in refusing gambling invitations (Ladouceur et al., 2002 Sylvain et al., 1997).

Applications And Exclusions

Assertion training may be carried out in groups. A group offers a number of advantages including a variety of models, multiple sources of support, normalization and validation of concerns, and the availability of many people to participate in role-plays. Groups usually include from 5 to 10 sessions lasting one and a half to two hours each. Decisions must be made about how to structure sessions (for example, each session could be structured around a specific kind of assertive reaction). Assertion training in groups has been carried out with a variety of individuals, including college students, parents, public welfare clients, people with various psychiatric diagnoses, and women. Group training may be especially important for women. Because of their socialization, women compared to men may require more social support and more opportunities to observe assertive women in order for them to express their preferences.

Differences in Specialized Instruments

In comparison with the MMPI, the NEO PI-R and Cattell's 16 PF, there are tests which do not attempt to provide a broad overview of personality, but rather address one particular aspect of it. Feingold (1994) performed a meta-analysis of previously examined studies that had employed inventories and specialized tests measuring Self-Esteem, Internal Locus of Control (belief in one's own agency), Anxiety, and Assertiveness. He reported that overall males scored higher in Self-Esteem, Assertiveness, and Internal Locus of Control, while scoring lower in Anxiety than females (Feingold, 1994, p. 438). Again, the reported differences, though statistically significant, were small. Feingold's findings are generalizable because they were based on a variety of measurement instruments including Rotter's Locus of Control test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, and on behavior as well as personality inventories. The meta-analysis of sex differences in...

Gender over the Life Cycle

After marriage, motherhood marks the next transformation in a woman's social identity. Young women often become more assertive in stating their needs and desires. They will also, especially if they are from nonelite households, more readily complain about their husband's shortcomings in providing for his family. During this stage many women will seek employment to support themselves and their children. The increase in income enables some women a greater voice in determining how family resources are allocated. may have room to expand. The leaders are also the administrators of the religious trust that controls the distribution of all community property. It is in old age that many men come to appreciate how much they are mutually dependent upon their wives and children. In this stage even fiercely independent and patriarchically inspired men often become less assertive and more tolerant of their own lives and others around them.

Characteristics of Manualized Interventions

The typical treatment manual that relies on cognitive-behavioral procedures is a loosely associated set of empirically sound procedures, but with little in the way of a conceptual core. Although it is not our intention to single any one manualized approach out of the larger set, one illustration of this state of affairs is dialectic behavior therapy (DBT), which has been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. An examination of the skills manual shows that there are elements of social skills training (especially interpersonal assertiveness), mindfulness exercises, exposure for fear reduction, and cognitive disputation to name a few. This has all been neatly packaged in a user-friendly format specifically formulated for the practicing clinician. The results of this packaging have indeed been encouraging, and the popularity of this approach has been impressive. On the other hand, there is no conceptual feature that unifies these interventions, and the application for...

Programming of Change

Specific goals are established for each session. Perhaps only one or two behaviors will be focused on in a session, or the initial repertoire might be such that all needed verbal and nonverbal behaviors can be practiced. Assessment of the client's behavior in relation to given situations will reveal available behaviors and training should build on available repertoires. Hierarchies ranked in terms of the degree of anxiety or anger that different social situations create can be used to gradually establish effective assertive skills and lessen anxiety Rehearsal starts with situations creating small degrees of anger or anxiety. Higher-level scenes are introduced as anxiety or anger decreases. Thus, introduction of scenes is programmed in accord with the unique skill and comfort levels of each client. Improvements are noted and praised. Praise for improvement should be in relation to a client's current performance levels.

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Mothers are the main caretakers of babies, although fathers interact with boys later on. Anthropologist Erika Friedl (1997) found that parents and others in a Lurish village expected girls to be quiet, obedient, helpful, clean, and homebound. From very early on, girls' genital areas are always covered, while little boys may be naked. Mothers taught girls to acquiesce to male domination. Although mothers complained about their sons' devilish-ness, wildness, and destructiveness, they also saw this behavior as masculine assertiveness.

Individual Based Approaches

In general, group interventions for caregivers have many functions, including the provision of respite for care-givers, an opportunity for caregivers to receive and give peer support, and an increase in caregivers' self-efficacy. Unlike support groups, psychoeducational interventions teach care-givers practical skills for caregiving and specific coping strategies in addition to providing support through a group format. Psychoeducational interventions also tend to be more intensive and time-limited than traditional support groups. Although not all psychoeducational group interventions use a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral orientation, most are grounded in cognitive and behavioral principles. Caregivers participating in cognitive-behavioral psychoedu-cational groups may learn how to (a) challenge negative thoughts, (b) be more assertive, and (c) control their frustration level, as well as learn specific caregiving skills derived from behavioral principles (e.g., managing difficult...

Assertion Training

The aim of assertion training is to enhance interpersonal effectiveness in social situations. Positive consequences may be forgone because of anxiety in social situations. Assertion training emphasizes the extent to which we can influence our social environment by being active in its construction. In 1973 Joseph Wolpe defined assertive behavior as The proper expression of any emotion other than anxiety toward another person. Lack of effective social skills may result in a variety of maladaptive behaviors. Assertion training often in combination with other methods, has been used to address a wide variety of presenting complaints including substance abuse, aggressive and explosive behaviors, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It has been used to help people make friends, arrange dates, and acquire needed help (e.g., on the part of individuals with learning disabilities). Essentially, assertive skills are effective social influence skills acquired through learning. The terms assertive...

Roy Mac Kenzie

Insight into one's own patterns psychodynamics This is a broad concept referring to the psychological operations that govern thoughts and behaviors and of which the individual may not be consciously aware. In particular, from a therapeutic perspective, the psycho-dynamic tradition described the presence of wishes in the context of relationships (for example to be more assertive) that may lead to fears of the response of others (for example being rejected) or of response of self (for example, remaining passively silent). These patterns are seen as arising from early experiences. found in all groups to a greater or lesser extent. They will be used in various ways depending on the group model that is being used. In psychoeducational treatment models there is a class room-like atmosphere to learn a skill such as assertiveness, or to become informed about a diagnostic syndrome such as the symptoms and problems associated with bulimia nervosa. The group dynamics will be operating more or...

Arnold A Lazarus

Modeling Basically, modeling consists of learning by observation. For example, a client may accompany the therapist to a store to observe the assertive return of faulty merchandise. Therapists may perform several target behaviors, which the client imitates and then adopts into his or her own repertoire.

Covert Modeling

In this procedure, clients are asked to imagine observing a model performing the target behavior and then to imagine either a reinforcing or punishing consequence applied to the model's behavior. For example, a client with a fear of authority figures may imagine a model acting assertively with her boss and being reinforced by the boss's change of mind. This should result in an increase in the probability of assertive responses in the future. Or, an overly aggressive client may be asked to imagine a model acting overly assertive with her boss and being punished by the loss of her job. This should result in a decrease in the probability of aggressive responses in the future.


Pharmacological treatments for agoraphobia have also been examined. Zitrin et al. (1983) compared three conditions behavior therapy (consisting of systematic desensitiza-tion and assertiveness training) and imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant), behavior therapy and placebo, and supportive therapy and imipramine. Results indicate that behavior therapy plus imipramine was superior to behavior therapy plus placebo. When all drug-treated patients were compared with all placebo-treated patient irrespective of type of therapy treatment, imipramine was significantly superior to placebo in the treatment of agoraphobia.

Model Presentation

Effective behaviors may be modeled by the counselor, or written scripts, audiotape, videotape, or film may be used. Essential elements of various responses can be highlighted and written models offered. The advantage of written material is that it can be referred to on an as-needed basis. In addition, the client may be asked to observe people with effective behavior who are in similar roles and to write down the situation, what was done, and what happened. This increases exposure to a variety of effective models, offers examples to use during rehearsal and may increase discrimination as to when to use certain behaviors and when not to do so, and offers opportunities for vicarious extinction of anxiety reactions through observation of positive outcomes following assertive behavior (that is, negative emotional reactions decrease via observation of what happens to others). The opportunity to see how negative reactions to assertive reactions can be handled may be offered as well. Client...

Carolyn Zerbe Enns

Clients are encouraged to consider the role of both internal and external contributors to their problems and explore denied or distorted aspects of their experiences in order to discover hidden or submerged sources of strength. This consciousness-raising and clarification process may decrease clients' self-blame and help clients transform indirect forms of influence (e.g., symptoms) into direct, constructive, assertive expressions that support health. Clients may also explore ways in which restrictive environments may limit their freedom or may punish them for stepping outside of prescribed roles. In order to help clients deal with external and internal resistance to creative change, therapists often encourage clients to weigh the costs and benefits of change, and to consider how they may cope with negative reactions to their positive change efforts. Feminist therapists, recognizing that individual change alone will not lead to extensive systemic change,...

After Darwin

The transmission of abstract ideas through cultural exchange over time. He argues that all mental and cultural life, including law, is adequately explainable by a mechanical Darwinian process of natural selection in which genes and memes struggle for survival. Seeking to fuse concepts of function in biology and meaning in philosophy, the theory utilizes adaptionism as a fertile source of both biological and social explanations. Rejecting the notion of any Panglossian tendency at work, Balkin asserts that this evolutionary process is less Darwinian than Lamarckian in that adaptation and variation occur in direct response to the environment rather than as part of a contest between random variations to fit better the environment.35 In short, he offers a less assertive form of autopoeitic development using mimetic units. However, in attempting to provide a scientific basis for cultural evolution, Balkin only manages to offer a process that is unrealistically clinical and sterile in its...

Social Functioning

While some of these clients have broad-based social difficulties, the majority seem able to function reasonably effectively in most social situations. For those who are poorly equipped socially, programs have been developed to increase appropriate assertiveness, improve control over the expression of anger, and enhance the accuracy of social perceptions.

Linda Wasserman

Contingency contracts Behavioral contracts between individuals who wish behavior to change (e.g., parents or teachers) and those whose behavior is to be changed (e.g., children or students). covert assertion A behavior modification technique that causes behavior change when a person says forceful or assertive things to himself or herself (e.g., I am brave. I am strong. ), statements that often contradict the actual situation or problem. desensitization The gradual counterconditioning of anxiety

And Maintenance

Generalization refers to the use of assertive behaviors in situations other than those in which training occurred. Maintenance refers to their continued use over time. Steps that can be taken to increase the likelihood of generalization and maintenance of assertive behaviors include recruiting natural reinforcers (e.g., involving significant others), reinforcement for using behaviors in new situations (e.g., self-reinforcement), and use of a variety of situations during training. Generalization and maintenance can be encouraged by use of homework assignments and self-monitoring (e.g., keeping track of successes). Situational variations that may occur in real life that influence assertive behavior should be included in practice examples to encourage generalization and maintenance. For example, a woman may have difficulty refusing unwanted requests in a variety of situations (e.g., with friends as well as supervisors at work). If so, practice should be arranged in these different...

What are consumers

Collins' English Dictionary (1982) 1. a person who purchases goods and services for his own needs 2. A person or thing that consumes . The commercial overtones of the first meaning displease some people. The word also evokes consumerism, defined as the protection of the interests of consumers . This gives it a slightly assertive, even militant edge, suggesting that consumers of health services are more likely to insist on their rights than mere patients or users. The word is therefore particularly apt in connection with research ethics committees, health authorities, funding bodies and the like, where consumer voices are increasingly given parity with those of the professionals. It does, however, have the same universality as user we are all consumers -whoever and whatever else we may be. It is clear that there is no perfect label for the many potential roles that patients and their carers may take in health that is free of certain connotations, but for simplicity, we will use the...


Beneficent duties may be limited in two ways. The first limiting force is duties to oneself. Self-respect, and an appropriate attention to one's own well-being, will of necessity restrict activities for the good of others, unless beneficence is given a preemptive place and is conflated with saintliness. Hume, for example, believed persons can be too good, carrying attention for others beyond the proper bounds, blunting a due sense of pride and the self-assertive virtues (p. 93). A second kind of limit involves our psychological capacity for identification of and sympathy with those who could use our help. The press of human suffering that could be alleviated by our actions is immense. To conceive of this larger and seemingly inexhaustible world of suffering as our charge would likely be debilitating. Jonathan Glover has suggested that a restricted but feasible beneficence may be the price we pay for our sanity. Limits to the duty to promote good restrict us, but also orient and direct...


Therapy sessions focus on helping the client learn (1) cognitive restructuring skills (i.e., identifying, evaluating, and modifying negative automatic thoughts and beliefs) related to pain and emotional distress, (2) relaxation techniques (i.e., deep abdominal breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, hypnosis, and or biofeedback) and other behavioral strategies (e.g., pain and activity monitoring, distraction, assertiveness training), and (3) problem-solving skills to cope with pain and other psychosocial stressors. The course of CBT typically starts with a focus on pain management and then moves to other concerns or issues (assuming pain management is the primary goal of therapy). The primary target for change is clients' negative, unrealistic cognitions about pain, the consequences of having pain, and other life stresses. Therapists also help clients identify

Role Playing

Role-playing is employed in behavior therapy to modify maladaptive responses and replace them with new responses. Role-playing may also be used to instruct clients in how to perform a newly acquired behavior or to engage in a behavior in a given context. Therefore, role-playing is an example of behavioral rehearsal in that behaviors are repeatedly acted out until they become part of the individual's behavioral repertoire. This type of instruction is most commonly applied with interpersonal difficulties, especially when problems are associated with assertiveness or social skills. Role-playing allows the therapist to teach a behavior, to observe the client performing the behavior, and to have the client perform the behavior in the presence of stimulus cues that are likely to be present in real-life situations. For example, a therapist may demonstrate ways of responding assertively to a controlling and demanding spouse. The client may then anticipate certain reactions the spouse may have...

Doing FAP

On the other hand, therapists who are not aware of CRBs may inadvertently punish CRB2s (improvements). For example, consider a case in which a woman was seeking help for depression that was related to her lack of assertiveness with her husband. The therapist attempted to teach her to be assertive by using role playing, a common behavior therapy procedure. The client expressed discomfort with role playing and asked if there were another way to approach the problem. The therapist then suggested to the client that by resisting the role playing she was being avoidant, and he pressured her to do the role playing anyway. The FAP analysis of this incident is that the client's expression of her reluctance to do the role play was a CRB2 because she was being assertive with the therapist the very real-life skill that the therapist was attempting to teach. The therapist, on the other hand, did not nurture and strengthen this assertiveness and may even have unintentionally punished it by accusing...

Case Example

Twelve situations that were unrelated to the client's problem areas but that required assertive behavior were used during training. Each was role played five times in different orders over sessions. Instructions were given to the client through a miniature radio receiver. Instructions related to only one of the four responses at any one time. Thus during the initial scenes he was coached to look at his partner when speaking to him, and during the second series he was coached to increase the loudness of his voice but received no instructions concerning any other response. During the fourth series, he was coached to speak longer, and during the last, instructed to ask his partner for a behavior