Secrets of the Deep Sky

Jupsat Pro Astronomy Software

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Jupsat Pro Astronomy Software Summary


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Secrets of the Deep Sky

Brian Ventrudo, author of Secrets of the Deep Sky, reveals how to look beyond the easy sights such as Venus, Mars, the Pleiades star cluster, and the moon, and find the much deeper parts of the beautiful night sky that most people never get see. You will learn to increase the reach of your telescope to look farther into the sky, and find any object of the night sky that you want to see. You will learn the celestial coordinate system, to learn how to map any object in the sky. You can also learn to estimate distances in the night sky. You can learn to change your field of view to see wide objects like massive nebula, and simple techniques to preserve your night vision and increase the sensitivity of your eyes by 20-40x. This eBook guide shows everyone, from the beginner to the more experience stargazer the best tricks to get the most out of every night sky.

Secrets of the Deep Sky Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Brian Ventrudo
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Price: $29.00

Carolin Banasek Richter Marie France Cattin and Louis Flix Bersier

Food webs are complex and variable, and a general understanding of their structure and functioning must rely on a careful examination of their regularities. The search for scale-invariant features is of special interest in this respect (Briand and Cohen, 1984), since scale-invariance may represent basic structural constraints valuable for the discovery of underlying processes. An illuminating example of such a scale-invariant property drawn from astronomy and physics is Kepler's third law of planetary motion, which relates the revolution time t of a planet to its average distance from the sun d t2 d3 is a constant value the finding of this invariant property was a decisive step in the discovery of the underlying process, the law of universal gravitation. Most natural ecosystems are orders of magnitude more complicated and more variable than planetary motion. Their elements species or sets of species are themselves complex objects they are composed of heterogeneous individuals, each...

Doppler Effectprincipleshift

The Austrian physicist Christian Johann Doppler (1803-1853) enunciated this principle in 1842, which accounts for the variation of frequency observed (lower or higher than which is actually emitted) when a vibrating source of waves and the observer, respectively, recede from, or approach, one another. In other terms, the Doppler effect refers to the change in apparent frequency of a source due to relative motion of source and observer. An interesting experimental validation of the Doppler effect was conducted at Utrecht in the Netherlands in 1845 a locomotive pulling an open car containing several individuals playing trumpets passed by a group of musicians (who had perfect pitch) standing at a fixed location. The result was as expected the apparent frequency of waves from the source (the trumpeters) when moving toward the observers (the musicians) was increased, whereas the apparent sound waves from the source (the trumpeters) when moving away from the observers (the musicians) was...

Drilling at the roof of the world

The part of the mission that fell to the paleomagneticians5 was to apply their techniques to everything that would come under our hammers or that our drills brought to the surface.6 We have already seen how the Earth's magnetic field can be recorded and preserved almost indefinitely in the memory of rocks. Based on this field's ability to reverse its poles, we have developed a reversal scale, which is a powerful tool for correlating segments of geological time. But we have not yet used the information implicit in the actual direction of residual magnetism, as measured in the laboratory. As for a star in astronomy, or the geographical coordinates - latitude and longitude - of a site, this direction is defined by two angles, one of them known to almost everyone, and the other perhaps less familiar (Fig. 3.1). The first, declination, is the angle formed between the direction of the magnetic north (we have already seen that the blue needle of the compass actually points to the magnetic...

Discovery of Circadian Rhythms

Daily rhythms in the activities of plants and animals have been recognized from the earliest recorded times. It was not until 1729, however, that diurnal rhythmi-city was empirically shown to be an endogenously generated phenomenon and not merely a passive response to a cyclic environment. That year, French astronomer Jean Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan studied the leaf movements of the heliotrope plant, Mimosa pudica. De Mairan observed that the leaves and pedicels of the plant continued to open during the day and close during the night even when the plant was isolated from the normal light-dark environment. De Mairan's study was not generally accepted as proof that circadian time-keeping was an innate property of the plant because other external (geophysical) oscillations (e.g., temperature or electromagnetic oscillations) had not been ruled out as time cues. Since de Mairan, other scientists have attempted to account for the potential influence of these external oscillations. For...

Taming the Bulldog The Natural and the Pragmatic

Science has achieved much and will no doubt continue to do much more. As a prestigious discipline, the achievements of its greatest students - Copernican astronomy, Newtonian physics, Einsteinian mechanics - are deservedly included in the exalted feats of human history. Indeed, the evolutionary work of Charles Darwin is fully entitled to be mentioned in the same breath as these iconic endeavors. However, such accomplishments are often treated as if they have solved or hinted at some answers to enduring questions of humankind How should we live What is good and true What is the meaning of life While the pioneers of these scientific achievements usually appreciate the importance of their work, they also often recognize its limits. Conceding that such discoveries tend to prompt as many new questions as provide new answers, they accept that there is no necessary or proportionate relation between intellectual originality and technological utility what we now know is an entirely different...

Spectral or Fourier Analysis

The modern methods of time series analysis are often used to simplify complicated waveforms such as EEG. Many industrial applications involve such methods as electric circuits, signal processing (television, radar, astronomy, etc.), and voice recognition. Most time series analyses are based on spectral (or Fourier) methods. Computers extract the amplitudes Anm and phases fnm associated with each data channel (m) and frequency (n) from the often complicated EEG, represented by Eq. (1). The computer unwraps the waveform Vm(t) to reveal its individual components. Such spectral analysis is analogous to the physical process performed naturally by atmospheric water vapor to separate light into its component colors. Each color is composed of electromagnetic waves within a narrow frequency band, forming rainbows.

Central Dogma Principle

This theoretical proposition - the earliest version of which was proved in 1818 by the French mathematician and astronomer Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827) who also founded the modern form of probability theory - states the following if a population has a finite variance (o2) and a finite mean the distribution of sample means from samples of N independent observations approaches the form of a normal distribution with variance o2 N and mean

Nemesis the death star

In 1984, Walter Alvarez and his colleague Richard Muller, a Berkeley astronomer, analyzed about 15 impact craters dated at less than 250 Ma. Amid a good deal of background noise, their spectrum (see Note 1) seemed to show a peak corresponding to a periodicity of 28 Ma. This figure from their article in Nature by itself gave grounds for pause, and the data on which it was based seemed pretty scant and rather fragile. Yet it still would serve to launch a new and much-discussed theory. Richard Muller and his associates, in fact, claimed the famous periodicity was evidence that the Sun has a companion, which they called Nemesis in effect, our solar system would be a double star. They conjectured that this small companion, in a very elongated elliptical orbit around the Sun, would pass every 28 Ma near the Oort cloud. Located far beyond the outermost planets, the Oort cloud is the (hypothetical, but very probable) home of the comets that episodically penetrate through the ranks of the...

Normal Distribution Theory As

Is the case with many theoretical functions, a normal distribution is specified completely only by its mathematical statement or rule. Another name for the theoretical normal distribution is the Gaussian distribution, named in honor of the German mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) who studied its basic characteristics. The normal distribution is a bell-shaped and symmetrical probability distribution (also called normal curve, bell-curve, and bell-shaped curve) showing the most probable scores from various tests or situations as concentrating around the central, average, or mean point, and indicating progressively less probable scores as being further from the mean, or central, point. For a mathematical expression of the normal distribution, or normal density function, see Hays (1994, p. 238). In technical terms, concerning this theoretical distribution, approximately 68 percent of scores fall within one standard deviation (i.e., a measure...

Personal Construct Theory

Ity refers, in particular, to a person's characteristic reaction time (or a correction for it), and was reported initially in 1799 by the English astronomer Nevil Maskelyne (1732-1811) who found discrepancies in time estimations (of the transit times of stars across a hair-line, measured by counting the ticks of a pendulum clock) between himself and his assistant (the assistant, as a result of making such persistent errors, was fired subsequently from his job). Later, in 1823, the German astronomer and mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) examined Maskelyne's earlier report and discovered that even experienced and skilled astronomers vary considerably and consistently in their reported estimations regarding stars' transit times. Accordingly, Bessel introduced the notion of the personal equation to apply to individuals who perform calibrating tasks, and that reflect such be-tween-person differences in what eventually came to be called personal reaction time to some...

Essential Statistics For Testing

By and large, the progress of science dovetails with the invention of measuring tools and advances in measurement procedures and techniques. The science of astronomy, for example, really took off in the 17th and 18th centuries following the invention of a telescope suitable for observing the cosmos and Descartes's invention of analytic geometry, which led to a more precise calculation of distances between celestial bodies, among other things. Similarly, the enormous current strides in the field of neuroscience owe much to the development of techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which allow scientists to visualize and measure small biochemical changes and events in the brain.

Catastrophe Theorymodel

Gage in the verbal activity of free association, Ferenczi had those patients abstain from behaviors such as eating, sex, or defecation with the expected result that the patients' consequent pent-up libido provided the energy or force necessary for therapy to continue (cf. relaxation principle in therapy - a psychotherapeutic technique based on the idea that a permissive and loving approach to patients is more effective - than a strict application of privation theory - in releasing repressed impulses and making patients more amenable to analysis). Additionally, in psychology, the catastrophe model refers to conditions in which anxiety influences one's performance in an in-verted-U relationship under low cognitive anxiety levels however, when high levels of bodily anxiety are accompanied by high levels of cognitive anxiety, the result is a catastrophic or extreme decrease in one's performance level. The versatile notion of catastrophe theory has been developed in non-psychological...

Visionsight Theories Of One of

Nomenon - named after the French astronomer and physicist Francois Arago (1786-1853), is the relative insensitivity to light of the very center of the visual field at very low levels of illumination . According to modern vision theory, the stimulus for the sensory modality of vision sight is electromagnetic radiation (light) between approximately 380 and 740 nanometers (nm, where 1 nm 1 billionth of a meter), and where the initial processing of visual information is the receptor system consisting of photosensitive cells (rods and cones) in the retina of the eye. Vision is the process of transforming (transducing) physical light energy into biological neural impulses that can then be interpreted by the brain. The electromagnetic radiation can vary in intensity (perceived as a difference in brightness level) and wavelength (perceived as a difference in hue or color). The quantum theory of vision maintains that light energy travels to the eye in the form of discrete or discontinuous...

Probability Theorylaws

Mathematical foundation of probability theory forms the basis for all the statistical techniques of psychology. Probability theory originated in games of gambling where, on the basis of a relatively small number of trials (e.g., roulette-wheel spins, dice throws, poker hands), some decisions needed to be made about the likelihood of particular events occurring in the long run, given the basic assumption of the uniformity of nature and the mutual cancellation of complementary errors. The earliest contributions to probability refer to the probability principles as laws of chance (cf., aleatory theory - the belief that changes in society over time are due largely to chance), and were made by the French mathematician astronomer Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827), who is credited with founding the modern form of probability theory cf., the theory of accidentalism (J. M. Baldwin, 1901-1905) - this early theory asserts that events may occur absolutely without cause. In the area of ethics,...

Status Of Behavioral Pharmacology

Although behavioral pharmacology has been a legitimate science for almost 50 years, it is only in recent decades that it has been able to go beyond concern with behavior and effects of drugs thereon and to establish meaningful relationships with other branches of science. A science is enriched and empowered when it can be related to other scientific disciplines in both reductionist and emergent directions. For example, integrative physiology has been enriched by reductionist analyses. The physiology of Starling's law of the heart, relating the rate of return of blood to the heart to the size and force of the heartbeat, was a legitimate science. However, it becomes much more powerful when the law can be related to the known mechanisms of the molecules that power contraction in the heart cells and how they do it. Physics has been enriched by the feedback from its emergent permeation of astronomy and its reduction to mathematical strings. Attempts of behavioral pharmacology to relate to...

Jungs Theory Of Personality

And accept the course of events and indications of their disintegration). One of the components of the collective unconscious (or objective psyche) is called archetypes (other names for this component are dominants, primordial images, imagoes, mythological images, and behavior patterns), which are universal ideas that are emotion-laden and create images visions that correspond allegedly to some aspect of the conscious situation in normal waking life (cf., theory of phylogenesis -refers to the origin and biological development of a species as a whole, but Jung extended this theory within psychology to include the development of the psyche and archetypes the theory of racial memory unconscious - holds that people inherit the common body of experiences and memories of all past humans, and that in human consciousness such elements continue from generation to generation thus, humans not only inherit their physical aspects from their ancestors, but their memories as well). Other components...

Paradigm Of Associative Inhibition See Mullerschumann Law

Growth over cure or adjustment, and the self-discovery self-exploration of one's potentialities third-force theory, or humanist theory and self-growth self-actualization psychology, was advanced by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), among several others . Thus, the paradigm shift doctrine states that - occasionally in science - there is a system-wide alteration in thinking, procedures, and orientation, where a fundamental reorganization occurs (sometimes abruptly) concerning how people think about an entire topic issue for instance, the evidence advanced by the Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) - that the earth revolves around the sun - caused a paradigm shift in the discipline of astronomy, and replaced the older paradigm or notion of the Egyptian astronomer and geographer Ptolemy (c. 90-168 A.D.) that the earth is the stationary center of the universe. In his writings, Kuhn distinguishes, also, between the concepts of normal science (a period in the...

Natural Response Theory

Ance of the cliff side that they seem to have an innate appreciation of depth and possess a natural ability for visual depth perception . In this regard, in 1688, the Irish philosopher, astronomer, and politician William Molyneux (1656-1698) posed a question (called Molyneux's Question, today) to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), asking whether a congenitally blind adult - upon suddenly acquiring vision - would be able to distinguish between a ball (globe) and a cube by sight alone, without touching them. Both Mo-lyneux and Locke (who was an empiricist) agreed the answer to the question was no. Note However, psychological research in the 1960s on the topic of cross-modal transfer found results supporting a yes answer to Molyneux's Question . Molyneux's simple question went straight to the heart of the early philosophical debate over innate ideas, and is still of interest to psychologists today in terms of theories of the form and extent of the brain's biological genetic...

Selfcategorization Theory

SELF-CONCEPT THEORY. self-psychology theory. Based on self-consistency theory, each individual is guided by his her own theory of reality that, in turn, consists of a self-theory and a world-theory cf., heliocentric theory and its influence on personal self-esteem or self-importance the theory is the Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus' (14731543) view of the solar system in which the universe is no longer seen to revolve around humans on Earth, but the Earth is only one planet rotating on its axis and revolving around a medium-sized star, the Sun, in a small corner of the entire universe such a view deprecates the importance of humans .

Ravens Progressive Matrices Theory See Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

The phenomenon of reaction-time (RT) originated in the discipline of astronomy in the late 18th century by way of the concept of the personal equation i.e., individual differences were observed in the ability of astronomers to note the precise time at which a star crossed the transit point when observed through a telescope. Such individual observer differences were called the personal equation and stimulated studies of RT in the field of experimental psychology. Such discrepancies were significant, also, in the later development of mental chronometry - the measurement of the time required to carry out different mental processes activities. In the context of experimental psychology, RT is defined as the minimum time between the presentation of a stimulus and the participant's response to it. RT is one of experimental psychology's oldest paradigms or dependent variables, and several types of RT have been studied simple RT is

Father son iridium and impact

The obtained concentrations were minuscule, the products of an analytical tour de force far from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, they have been established at a few tenths of a part per billion (p.p.b.). But in the clay layer, they attained 9 p.p.b., a value 30 times greater. Abnormal values were also found as much as 15 cm above the clay layer. Now, in the Earth's crust, the natural concentration of iridium is a thousand times less, rarely exceeding a few hundredths of a part per billion Very excited at their discovery, which implied quantities of iridium far greater than those that would have been deposited by a simple rain of micrometeorites even over several million years, the team immediately began looking for an abnormal event of extraterrestrial origin. The first culprit they thought of was the explosion of a supernova in the vicinity of the solar system. But the absence of plutonium-244 quickly ruled out that hypothesis. In the year following the discovery, numerous...


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Spectroscopy, a tool of physics adapted to chemistry and astronomy in the 19th century, became a mainstay of cytometry shortly thereafter. Microspectrophoto-metric measurement, either of intrinsic optical characteristics of cellular constituents or of optical properties of dyes or reagents added to cells, provided objective, quantitative information about cells' chemistry that could be correlated with their functional states.


Space Biology is a fundamental component of Space Life Sciences. Space life sciences include the sciences of physiology, medicine, and biology, and are linked with the sciences of physics, chemistry, geology, engineering, and astronomy. Space life sciences research not only helps to increase new knowledge of our own human function and our capacity to live and work in space, but also explores fundamental questions about the role of gravity in the formation, evolution, maintenance, and aging processes of life on Earth.

Closing Remarks

The celebrated astronomer and biologist, Sir Fred Hoyle, said that the solutions to major unresolved problems should be sought by the exploration of radical hypotheses, while simultaneously adhering to well-tried and tested scientific tools and methods. This approach is particularly valid for environmental biotechnology. With new developments in treatment technologies appearing all the time, the list of what can be processed or remediated by biological means is ever changing. By the same token, the applications for which biotechnological solutions are sought are also subject to alteration. For the biotech sector to keep abreast of these new demands it may be necessary to examine some truly 'radical hypotheses' and possibly make use of organisms or their derivatives in ways previously unimagined. This is the basis of innovation the inventiveness of an industry is often a good measure of its adaptability and commercial robustness.

Laws Of Kinetics

Inertia Direction Outline Drawing

Very high-speed or distant objects like in astronomy. There are many other examples of our molding or construction of the nature of reality, but the important point is that there is a long history of careful scientific measurements which demonstrate that certain laws of mechanics represent the true nature of object and their motion. These laws provide a simple structure that should be used for understanding and modifying motion, rather than erroneous perceptions about the nature of things. Newton's first law is the basis for the Inertia Principle in applying biomechanics.

Barnard Psychology

This tenacious, and unsubstantiated, theory is based on the belief that celestial bodies, in particular, the stars, have an influence on human behavior and personality (cf., Barnum effect). Historically, astrology is primitive astronomy but, whereas the latter is now a legitimate scientific endeavor, the former is considered as a pseudoscience founded in the notion that the positions of the moon, sun, and stars affect human affairs, and that one can foretell the future by studying the stars. The name Chaldeans (late Babylonians, c. 1000 B.C.) came to mean astrologer among the early biblical writers (cf., Daniel 2 2, 10) and the early Romans. The earliest astronomers were priests, and no attempt was made in those days to separate astronomy from the pseudoscience of astrology. Today, of course, the situation has changed and there is a great gulf separating astronomy from astrology. The American psychologist lexicographer Arthur S. Reber (1940- ) probably put the...

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Telescopes Mastery

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