We found one controlled trial of UVA1 (350-440 nm) in 11 people with systemic lupus.139 Disease activity was measured by the SLEDAI score, a 24-item score that measures SLE activity,140 but skin lesions were not specifically described. A nonsignificant improvement in Raynaud's phenomenon and rash (type not specified) was noted.

We found several observational studies and case reports. McGrath found that people with systemic lupus treated with low-dose UVA irradiation showed benefit in constitutional and musculoskeletal complaints. Skin lesions did not worsen but were not formally assessed.141 There was a further favourable case report of UV treatment in SLE.142 Sonnischen successfully treated a person with DLE.143 We also found case reports describing the successful use of extracorporeal photopheresis in cutaneous lupus.144-146

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