We found no systematic reviews. We found one RCT19 comparing sunscreens with placebo in
How effective are therapeutic interventions in childbearing, pregnant and breastfeeding women?
women receiving hydroquinone. The study involved 59 non-pregnant Hispanic women in Puerto Rico. None of the participating women was taking contraceptive hormones and all had had melasma for 2-25 years. All women were prescribed a clearing solution of hydroquinone 3% in hydroalcoholic solvent twice daily. Women were randomised to a morning application of broad-spectrum sunscreen or vehicle (placebo) and were then followed for 3 months. Improvement, assessed subjectively by a physician, was similar with sunscreen (improvement in 26/27 (96%) women receiving sunscreen and hydroquinone compared with 21/26 (81%) women receiving placebo and hydroquinone; relative risk (RR) 1-19, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0-98-1-46). Improvement rates assessed by participants were high in both groups (27/27 (100%) with sunscreen and hydroquinone compared with 25/26 (96%) with placebo and hydroquinone; absolute risk reduction (ARR) 4%, CI -1 to 18-9%). Six of the 59 women (10%) withdrew and 9/53 (17%) women suffered side-effects; the report did not mention which group these women were allocated to.
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For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.