Details of Informed Consent

The primary information provided during informed consent procedures should include the objectives, procedures, complications, and the patient's human rights.

5J2J Objective

The reason the examination is to be performed should be clearly presented. It is necessary to describe the advantages of double-balloon endoscopy over other modalities. Double-balloon endoscopy allows relatively easy access to lesions located deep in the small intestine, which is not accessible with the conventional push method. It also allows treatment of emergencies, such as small-intestinal bleeding, in a timely manner. It enables not only observation but also biopsy and treatment of lesions. These potential advantages should be explained in association with patients' current conditions.

» Information on insertion of an enteroscope with two balloons (double-balloon enteroscopy)

1. Objective.

Double-balloon enteroscopy is an examination in which an endoscope is inserted through the mouth or the anus into the small intestine for the diagnosis of diseases in the small intestine. The examination is performed to diagnose bleeding, inflammation (enterocolitis), tumors, and narrowing of the small intestine. The examination may be accompanied by treatment to stop bleeding or to dilate a narrowing. This procedure may be performed as colonoscopy in patients in whom a conventional colonoscope failed to advance far enough.

2. Procedures.

The endoscope (at right) used has a structure similar to that of conventional gastroscopes and colonoscopes, but it is longer than gastroscopes and colono-scopes because of the distance of the small intestine from the mouth and the anus. We have developed a method for inserting an endoscope with two balloons, a type of "measuring worm," to insert the endoscope more safely and reliably into the entire small intestine. We have performed the procedure in many patients. This endoscopic system i consists of an endoscope with a balloon at its tip and a balloon-attached I overtube. The endoscope advances I into the small intestine like a I "measuring worm" while the distance between the balloon of the endoscope and that of the covering overtube is increased and decreased (see an attached information sheet for specific insertion procedures). Sedative and pain-killing medications are used to reduce pain during the examination, which takes about 1-2 h.

Double-balloon endoscope is on the right

Double-balloon endoscope is on the right

3. Complications.

Complications of conventional endoscopy may occur, such as pain, nausea, vomiting, and bleeding. In particular, patients with prior abdominal surgery including gynecologic surgery, may experience pain during endoscopy. Rarely gastrointestinal perforation (a hole in the gastrointestinal tract) may require emergency surgery. Extremely rarely, the use of sedatives may be associated with complications of aspiration (inhalation of saliva or vomit into the lungs) and resultant aspiration pneumonia, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest (in the event of these complications, emergency measures are available).

Between September 25, 2000 and January 31, 2004 we performed 178 double-balloon endoscopic examinations on 123 patients, none of whom experienced respiratory or cardiac arrest during the examination.

4. Patients may refuse to undergo the examination or treatment without penalty.

Patients have the choice of whether to undergo this examination. Patients refusing the examination are allowed to receive other treatments without penalty at our hospital.

5. Patients consenting to the examination or treatment are free to withdraw their consent at any time.

6. Other considerations required to protect patients' rights.

This treatment must be voluntary, and patients' willingness is the first priority in regard to performing the treatment. Please feel free to ask any questions about the procedures.

Left Radiograph showing an enteroscope inserted through the mouth

Right Radiograph showing an enteroscope inserted through the anus

• Informed consent form for double-balloon endoscopy

□Enteroscopy □Colonoscopy

I have been fully informed by Dr._and understand the objective, procedures, expected benefits, and complications of double-balloon endoscopy as well as the availability, benefits, and complications of other procedures. I voluntarily consent to undergo this examination. I also understand that I may withdraw my consent at any time without penalty.

Patient:_(seal)

Address:

Relative (relationship): Address:

Jichi Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology

• Insertion of the double-balloon enteroscope through the mouth

1. The endoscope is inserted into the stomach.

2. The endoscope tip is inserted into the duodenum. These procedures are similar to those for the gastroscope.

3. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip inserted into the duodenum is inflated to anchor the intestine from the inside.

4. Along the endoscope, the overtube tip is advanced close to the endoscope tip.

5. The overtube balloon (blue) is inflated.

6. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is deflated.

7. The endoscope is moved more deeply. The overtube balloon anchoring the intestinal tract from inside allows smooth insertion of the endoscope to a deeper point.

Fig. 4.1a-g. Information to be given to patients to obtain informed consent for double-balloon endoscopy (Jichi Medical University)

8. After the endoscope is advanced more deeply, the endoscope balloon (green) is inflated again to anchor the intestinal tract from the inside.

9. The overtube balloon (blue) is deflated.

10. Along the endoscope, the overtube tip is again advanced close to the endoscope tip.

11. The overtube balloon (blue) is inflated.

12. 13. Both balloons are inflated to anchor the intestinal tract from the inside, and the entire endoscope is pulled back to shorten the small intestine.

14, 15. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is again deflated, and the endoscope is inserted more deeply.

16. Steps 8-15 are then repeated to insert the endoscope farther into the small intestine.

Radiograph showing an endoscope inserted through the mouth into the middle of the small intestine for a total distance of 7-8 m

Radiograph showing an endoscope inserted through the mouth into the middle of the small intestine for a total distance of 7-8 m

• Insertion of the double-balloon enteroscope or colonoscope through the anus

1. The endoscope is inserted into the rectum or the sigmoid colon. This procedure is similar to that for conventional colonoscopy.

2. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is inflated to anchor the intestine from the inside.

3. With the endoscope as a guide, the overtube tip is advanced close to the endoscope tip, and the overtube balloon (blue) is also inflated.

4. Both the endoscope and the overtube are pulled back to reduce bends and straighten the rectum and sigmoid colon.

5. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is deflated, and the endoscope tip is moved more deeply.

6. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is inflated to secure the endoscope tip in the splenic flexure. The overtube balloon is deflated, and the overtube alone is advanced along the endoscope until it reaches the endoscope tip.

7. The overtube balloon (blue) is inflated, the balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is deflated, and the endoscope tip is moved more deeply. The overtube balloon (blue) anchoring the intestinal tract from the inside allows smooth insertion of the endoscope farther into the small intestine.

8. When the endoscope tip reaches the hepatic flexure, the balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is inflated. The overtube balloon (blue) is deflated, the overtube is again advanced to the endoscope tip, and the balloon (blue) is reinflated. With both balloons inflated, the endoscope and the overtube are pulled back simultaneously to reduce the bends and loops of the transverse colon and to straighten it.

9. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is deflated, and the endoscope tip is advanced farther into the small intestine.

10. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is inflated to secure the endoscope tip.

11. After the balloon (blue) at the overtube tip is deflated, the overtube tip is again advanced close to the endoscope tip with the endoscope as a guide, and the balloon (blue) at the overtube tip is reinflated.

12. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is deflated, and the endoscope tip is inserted more deeply into the small intestine.

13. The balloon (green) at the endoscope tip is inflated to anchor the intestinal tract.

14. After the balloon (blue) at the overtube tip is deflated, the overtube tip is again advanced close to the endoscope tip with the endoscope as a guide, and the balloon at the overtube tip is reinflated.

15. Both balloons are inflated to anchor the intestinal tract from the inside, and the entire endoscope is pulled back to shorten the small intestine.

16. Steps 12-15 are repeated to insert the endoscope more deeply.

Radiograph showing an endoscope inserted through the anus into the middle of the small intestine for a total distance of 7-8 m

Radiograph showing an endoscope inserted through the anus into the middle of the small intestine for a total distance of 7-8 m

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