Recollections

By the mid-sixties Marion Welchman had begun her pioneering work in the dyslexia field - prompted initially by the unsympathetic treatment meted out to her son, Howard, in his early days at school. Marion had heard about the work of the committee of the Word-Blind Centre and with characteristic energy had sought us out. I first met her at one of the committee meetings, where she was received with the utmost courtesy by Dr White Franklin and Dr Critchley. However, the person who first introduced...

Medical Or Educational

I now pass to issues where there were apparent conflicts but where these were due not so much to disagreement as to misunderstanding. In particular there was the issue of whether dyslexia was a medical matter or an educational one. In the 1970s this distinction was sharper than it is now. Medical budgets were separate from educational ones and funding had to come either from one budget or from the other. From this point of view dyslexia was an awkward hybrid no one had ruled whether it properly...

First Steps Towards Quantification

When Elaine took over responsibility for the teaching services, it left me free to concentrate on assessment. I was glad to have had some experience of teaching I was at least in a position to be aware of some of the difficulties which our teachers would have to face. My problem was to devise an approach to assessment which could properly be called 'scientific'. As a result of my philosophical training I was aware that there are all kinds of ways of doing good science, and I knew that it was...

Digits Forwards And Digits Reversed

I routinely made use of intelligence tests (see Chapter 9 for an account of the problems which I encountered in this area). I found, however, that some of the tests, including the Terman-Merrill and the Wechsler, included items where the subject was required to recall strings of auditorily presented digits. These included both Digits Forwards and Digits Reversed. I had become aware quite early on that many dyslexic children were weak at the recall of digits and, since one of the things which I...

Age Of Vocabulary Acquisition

There was a large amount of anecdotal evidence that dyslexics were late in learning to talk, but I owe to my colleague John Done an ingenious way of establishing the matter experimentally and quantifying the amount of lateness. The argument is a somewhat complex one, and for full details readers should consult the original paper (Done and Miles, 1988). In brief, the starting point was an earlier finding that, in adults, there was a high correlation between the time which it took to name a...

Mathematical Abilities Of lOyearold Dyslexics

The next analysis which we carried out was on the mathematics test. To allay possible anxieties on the part of the children the organisers of the Cohort Study designated it 'The Friendly Maths Test'. It comprised 72 items and covered a wide range of mathematical topics, including number, time, length, area, volume, capacity, temperature, mass, money, shape, angles, co-ordinates and statistical tables and graphs. The format was multiple choice. Adjoining each item were five boxes, each with a...

Recall Of Sentences

In Miles (1993a, pp. 138-9) I note that when I gave my subjects sentences to remember from the Terman-Merrill (1960) test they were often able to report the gist of the sentence correctly but did not get the exact words right. When this happened, I said the sentence over again and asked them to have another try. What I found was that in some cases they needed as many as five or six repetitions before they were word perfect. This seemed a good idea for a student project, and I enlisted the help...

Dyslexia and Dyscalculia Are They Two Separate Syndromes

The issue of whether there is a separate syndrome, dyscalculia, in addition to the syndrome of dyslexia, is an issue of where to lump and where to split. At present it seems to me that there is insufficient evidence to justify a firm decision in either direction. I shall assume in what follows that, for reasons set out in Chapter 18, dyslexia is an identifiable syndrome. The question to be discussed is whether the phenomena which constitute what people call 'dyscalculia' can all be explained in...

Dyslexia Variants

According to Critchley and Critchley (1978, p 124) there can be dyslexia variants. They write as follows 'Children are often referred to a doctor on account of a learning disorder or because of inadequacies in written work, where developmental dyslexia seems at first sight not to be the obvious diagnosis if only because the individual's ability to read conforms with both chronological age and intelligence. Might it be that such cases, or at least some of them, can still be looked upon as...

Sketch 4 Edward

Edward was discovered in 1981 at the age of 14 when control data were being obtained for the Bangor Dyslexia Test. The usual safeguards were specified as to adequate intelligence and opportunity, and in the case of this particular age group it had been decided to accept as controls all those who had spelled 72 or more words correctly on the Schonell S1 spelling test (Schonell and Schonell, 1952). This corresponds to a spelling age of just over 12. (It had been decided that anyone whose spelling...

Talking Things Over

When parents brought their children to me for assessment, my usual procedure was to start by seeing both the parents and the child together for about 15 minutes. My first task was to try to put the child at their ease in front of their parents, since the experience of meeting a stranger in these circumstances was likely to be rather alarming. (To avoid unnecessary circumlocutions I shall assume in this chapter that the child is male.) I quite often started by addressing my remarks to the child,...

Should Handedness Be Routinely Recorded

It had been widely supposed over many decades that among dyslexics there was either an excess of left-handers or possibly an excess of those who were neither strongly right-handed nor strongly left-handed. The evidence that this was so was by no means negligible, though my own results had turned out to be negative (Miles, 1993a, Chapter 21). The British Births Cohort Study provided the opportunity for a further check. Tests of handedness had formed part of a medical examination. Three tests...

Thoughts on Brenda and Michael

My next task was to examine my findings on Brenda and Michael and try to make sense of them. After some delay I was able to submit a paper for publication (Miles, 1961), and, after suitable refereeing, the editor accepted it (note 3.1). I entitled the paper 'Two cases of developmental aphasia'. The term 'developmental aphasia' was one which had been used by Macmeeken (1939), and although it has now been superseded I still believe it to be of theoretical interest this is because it provides a...

One Cannot Repair Damaged Brains

According to this view to label children as 'dyslexic' is defeatist and discourages efforts to try to help them. The implicit argument seems to have been that if the necessary brain structures are not there any learning which requires such structures will be impossible. Those who take this view can be reassured that that is not what advocates of the dyslexia concept were implying there is nothing defeatist about labelling a person 'dyslexic'. Indeed, one of the main points of the label is to...

Dyslexia And The Middle Classes

Next in point of time was the challenge, posed by the notion that, as mentioned in Chapter 12, dyslexia was a middle-class invention middle-class parents were using this fashionable label as a cover for the fact that their children were not very bright. This was, of course, a sneer and was not intended as a piece of serious research. However, there were already data in the British Births Cohort Study on social class. The children had been classified according to their father's occupation in...

Sketch 10 Elizabeth

My final sketch is that of Elizabeth Fry, the Quaker prison reformer, who lived from 1780 to 1845. The suggestion that she may have been dyslexic is made by Huntsman and Miles (2002). The main source of evidence is her personal journal, which runs to some 500,000 words and is in her own handwriting (note 21.4). A reproduction of one of the pages is given in Figure 21.1. The date of the entry is 15 July, 1798, when Elizabeth was aged 18. Some of what Elizabeth Fry wrote is not easy to decipher,...

Colournaming Experiments

From earlier research, for instance Denckla and Rudel (1976), there was reason to believe that if dyslexics were presented with a card containing familiar colours and asked to name them they would be slower at doing so than suitably matched controls. The reason for this, however, was not clear. One possibility was that in dyslexics the transmission of information through the nervous system is slower, with the result that, colour for colour, dyslexics take longer time. However, I had sometimes...

Dyslexia as a Disjunctive Concept

I suggested, particularly in Chapters 7 and 8 and in Chapters 19 and 20, that dyslexia is a disjunctive concept. This means that there are different ways of being dyslexic in one person it may be manifestations A, B, F and G in another person it may be manifestations B, C, D and H, and so on. No one manifestation is crucial what is crucial is the way in which the manifestations combine. According to the arguments in this book it is possible to be dyslexic without necessarily being a poor...

Dyslexia Without Severe Literacy Problems

We had already divided the severe underachievers into groups A, B and C according to the extent to which they showed indicators of dyslexia on the supplementary items. We now decided to extend this A, B and C classification to the cohort as a whole, again excluding the low-ability children. We had already become interested in variants of dyslexia (see Chapter 21), since there seemed to be individuals who showed indicators of dyslexia despite the absence any major literacy problems. As far as...

Matching Sentences With Symbols

The first study, which will be found in Miles (1986), was one in which the data were collected and analysed by Joyce McCulloch. It involved presenting dyslexic adults and matched controls with a sentence and various marks or symbols. Sample stimuli are given in Figures 16.1 and 16.2. There was a choice of two keys if the sentence and the diagram were congruent, the subjects had to press one key (to signify 'true') if the two were incongruent, they had to press the other key (to signify...

Overall Comments On The Sketches

In six cases out of the 10 (Philip, Helen, Rick, Charlotte, Professor X and Joyce) there appeared to be specific problems with calculation. A discussion of whether it is helpful to describe such individuals as 'dyscalculic' will be deferred until the next chapter. In presenting these 10 sketches my aim has been to describe cases which have a dyslexic (or possibly dyscalculic) 'feel' to them even in the absence of any severe literacy problems. In eight of the 10 cases others in the family were...

Further Quantification I

It was not until the mid-1970s that I began to use any experimental apparatus more sophisticated than a stopwatch. For very short time intervals, however, a stopwatch was not sufficiently accurate. I had always resisted the idea that in order to do good science one should fill one's laboratory with expensive apparatus - it was of far greater importance to decide what were the interesting questions to ask. However, at this stage of my research I took the view that there were some questions which...

Months Forwards And Months Reversed

I do not remember how exactly Months Forwards and Months Reversed came to be included. I remember finding that almost all the children whom I assessed were able to say the days of the week correctly, except in the case of the very young ones. This meant that a request to say the days of the week would not have differentiated the dyslexics from the non-dyslexics. The reason for this was also clear in the case of the days of the week there are seven items to remember, compared with 12 in the case...

Comments In Retrospect

(A) Macmeeken (1939, p. 27) describes the syndrome as one of 'directional confusion', and this clearly influenced the writing of the above passage. I would not now place the same emphasis on spatial orientation, since from the early 1970s it became clear that dyslexia is primarily a difficulty with certain aspects of language and symbolisation, rather than a difficulty over orientation. (B) From the wording of this passage it seems that I was willing to use language which endorses somewhat...

Sketch 3 Mary

Mary came for assessment at the age of 10. Her twin sister, Janet, had been referred because of suspected dyslexia, and their parents asked whether anyone in the team would like to assess Mary as well even though she was not dyslexic. This offer was accepted. Both twins turned out to be well above average in intelligence as judged by their results on the WISC-R (Wechsler, 1974). Janet turned out to be dyslexic, as her parents had supposed. In Mary's case, however, as far as her reading and...

Brenda

Picture a newly appointed assistant lecturer, fresh from college and starting on an academic career. Apart from my normal teaching and research duties I was given the opportunity to attend the local Child Guidance Clinic for half a day a week. In those days the members of the clinical team comprised a psychiatrist, a psychologist and a psychiatric social worker. I was, of course, wholly new to the job. I had a degree in psychology but no postgraduate experience or...

Sketch 5 Helen

Helen came to see me at the age of 19, kindly offering herself as a 'research case'. At A level she had obtained grade B in both English and French and clearly had no problems with either reading or spelling. However, it became clear that she had had serious problems with calculation. Her mother wrote 'Helen was a very active, inquisitive and riotous small child. She talked very early and picked up language easily and quickly.' Tying shoelaces, however, and learning to tell the time were an...

PRO and ANTI the Dyslexia Concept A Dialogue

In the 1960s and early 1970s dyslexia was a relatively unfamiliar concept. That it should have met with opposition is not surprising many new ideas require time before they register in the public consciousness. What was remarkable, however, was the heat which discussions of dyslexia sometimes engendered. To quote some words which I wrote at the time (Miles, 1967, p. 242) 'Whatever else we know or do not know about dyslexia, it appears to be the case that discussion of the subject makes some...

Do People Remain Dyslexic

Twenty-two of my subjects came back to the Bangor Unit for reassessment (Miles, 1993a, Chapter 19). It was therefore possible to compare the number of positive indicators obtained on the Bangor Dyslexia Test at the first assessment with that obtained at the second. My belief had always been that dyslexia is a lifelong condition, and I should have been seriously worried if I had found any large difference in respect of 'pluses' (positive indicators) between the two assessments. The scoring...

Sketch 6 Rick Loeffler

Rick wrote to me from America at the age of 51 on account of his mathematical difficulties. He had read Dyslexia and Mathematics (Miles and Miles, 2004), and 'it was like I was reading about myself'. He was interested in moving to a more demanding job but needed a university qualification in mathematics which he had been unable to obtain. He had been told that his disabilities were not of any recognised kind and that he was therefore not eligible for financial help. He told me that he had no...

The Effects Of Dyslexiacentred Teaching

Dr Beve Hornsby spent a year in Bangor in the late 1970s, during which time she collected data for inclusion in a thesis for the degree of M.Ed. She had kept careful records of the reading and spelling performance of children referred to the Dyslexia Clinic at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Records were also available from the Dyslexia Institute in Staines and from our own unit in Bangor. Beve and I set to work to check how successful the teaching had been at these three centres. What had been...

The British Births Cohort Study I

It was an exciting new venture when I was asked to take part in the 1980 follow-up of the 1970 British Births Cohort Study. This study related to all those children born in England, Wales and Scotland during the week 5-11 April 1970. There was a follow-up study in 1975, when the children were aged five, and a further follow-up in 1980, when they were aged 10. The original number of children studied was 14 906. In 1980 the number was 12 905. The main reasons for this drop in numbers appear to...

Sketch 1 Fiona

Fiona was assessed by me at the age of nine years three months. On the Schonell R1 test of single-word recognition (Schonell and Schonell, 1952) she had a reading age of 11.0 and on the S1 spelling test a spelling age of 9.2. On selected items of the WISC (Wechsler, 1974) her scaled scores were Comprehension 20, Similarities 20, Vocabulary 17, Picture Completion 16, Block Design 18 and Object Assembly 14. A score of 16 places a child in the top two and a half per cent of their age group on any...

Starting Teaching At Age Seven

Shortly before 1983 Elaine and I were given some money by the Department of Education and Science (DES), as it then was, to investigate what would happen if we started teaching the dyslexic pupils in Gwynedd at age seven instead of at age eight. We already had data on children who had started their specialist teaching at age eight, and we had obtained reasonably successful results. The question which we wanted to answer was would we have the same success if we started teaching when the children...

Sketch 2 Philip

Philip was referred for assessment at the age of 10 on account of his difficulties with numbers. His headmaster wrote 'What I find particularly unusual at this age is that he lacks appreciation of order in numbers. For instance, in simple multiplication involving 3 X 8, he is perfectly liable to put down the 2 in the units column and carry the 4 into the tens column. I have used an abacus and virtually every other method to indicate tens and units to him, but nevertheless mistakes still recur.'...

Legislation and Governmental Recognition

The first attempt in Britain to achieve legal recognition for dyslexic individuals was in 1970, when the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act of that year included a reference to 'acute dyslexia'. The word 'acute' appears to have been poorly chosen, since this word is normally taken to mean 'coming on suddenly'. In this context, however, it should presumably be taken simply to mean 'severe'. Because of this clause the Tizard Committee was appointed to look further into what was needed....

The Need For Evenhandedness

When resources are scarce, it goes without saying that these resources should go to those who need them most. The worry for some educationalists was that, if the dyslexia concept were accepted, resources might be channelled into helping those articulate middle-class parents who made a fuss at the expense of children whose needs might be greater. This was a perfectly valid concern. Sadly, however, things turned sour. The valid concern for a fair distribution of resources degenerated into a...

Sketch 7 Charlotte

I'm now - at the ripe old age of 60 - reading for a Doctorate in Psychology. I am dreading the time when I have to analyse statistically all the data I have collected on my field-work . I consistently have a habit of reversing the numbers in my head and writing them down in the wrong order when doing my professional accounts, which drives . my financial manager to distraction. I am quite incapable of doing mental arithmetic except for overlearned mathematical tables material. The only reason I...

Assessing Intelligence

The question of how to assess a dyslexic's intelligence is discussed in Miles (1996) in a paper entitled 'Do dyslexic children have IQs ' In it I express scepticism about the value of the concept of IQ in general and suggest that there are particular problems in the case of dyslexics. The idea that an IQ figure represents a fixed quantity and therefore implies a limit as to what a person might achieve seems to me a pernicious doctrine when applied to any individual, and particularly pernicious...

One Should Not Label Children

I have always thought that there is an easy answer to this objection. It is that if one does not give accurate labels, such as 'dyslexic', inaccurate ones will take their place. For example, if a teacher does not use the label 'dyslexic', other labels such as 'lazy' or 'lacking in concentration' will take their place. I remember an occasion - I had been addressing a local Dyslexia Association - when someone raised the objection about labelling. In reply a mother immediately stood up and said,...

The Need For Good Literature

There was a feeling around the 1970s that many children's reading books were dull and that it would be far better if they were exposed to 'real books', or, in other words, good literature. An extreme form of this view was put forward by Goodman (1967), who describes reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game. The overall thinking behind this kind of view was that it was unnecessary and time-consuming to try to make sense of a text by looking at every letter children should be encouraged to use...

Conventions

Throughout this book there are many examples of dyslexics' writings. These have been reproduced in roman type ('dsgib'), while correct spellings for words have been reproduced in italic type (described). When reproducing dyslexics' writings, I have striven to be as faithful to the original work as possible. Therefore, there are a few instances when a word had been crossed out by its writer this crossing-out has been reproduced. Lastly, since there are both male and female dyslexics, I have used...

Uncertainty Over Left And Right

Because it appeared that dyslexic subjects had problems over left and right, it was clearly useful to ask them in the first place if they could show me their right hand. I came to realise that slight hesitations and pauses might be significant. Soon afterwards I decided to add the supplementary question, 'Did you have any difficulty when you were younger ' This gave the subjects a chance, if they so wished, to tell me about earlier problems - perhaps, indeed, earlier reprimands - and in many...

Concerns and Disputes I

One of the most cogent of the academic arguments against the dyslexia concept was that of Davis and Cashdan (1963). The authors of this paper argue that if a concept such as dyslexia is to be justified it is necessary to show that the members of this group are distinctive in respect of causation, methods of treatment and prognosis. The authors did not claim that these conditions would never be satisfied but only that at the time of writing this had not happened. At the time Davis and Cashdan...

Repeating Polysyllables

Among the more difficult words at the end of the Schonell Word Recognition test (Schonell and Schonell, 1952) is the word preliminary. What I have found with dyslexic children and adults is that responses which I had not believed were relevant to the diagnosis suddenly 'hit me in the eye' as having a significance which I had hitherto not appreciated. In this particular case I do not know how many times I had given the later part of the Schonell Word Recognition test to my subjects before I...

Proponents Of Dyslexia Do Not Agree Among Themselves

Another point sometimes urged by critics of the dyslexia concept was that even among its supporters there was no agreement as to what dyslexia was. This never troubled me, since it was clearly untrue. For the record, however, it is worth pointing out that in the early 1970s Elaine and I held a meeting with Beve Hornsby (co-author of Hornsby and Shear, 1975) and Harry Chasty, of the Dyslexia Institute, to see if we could agree on some basic principles of teaching. We had no difficulty in...

Dyslexia Anomaly Or Normal Variation

It seemed to us that the first question we should try to answer from the data available from the British Births Cohort Study was whether something called dyslexia really existed. In the 1970s there were many people who asserted that it did not. Before any answer could be attempted, however, it was necessary to specify what exactly the question meant. An important clue to answering the question had been supplied to us by Dr Norman Geschwind (see the recollection at the end of this Chapter). It...

The Word Blind Centre

Early in 1962 I was surprised to receive a letter from Dr Alfred White Franklin, who was then chairman of the Invalid Children's Aid Association. It invited me to take part in a conference at St Bartholomew's Hospital on the theme of dyslexia or word-blindness the invitation had arisen because he had read my paper on the subject (Miles, 1961). Dr White Franklin held a senior post as physician at St Bartholomew's Hospital. I afterwards learned that he had been coming across a significant number...

Proposal for a Taxonomy of Dyslexia

The word 'taxonomy' means 'way of classifying' or 'classificatory principle'. Although the word has been used primarily in biology and medicine, there is no reason why it should not be used more widely. How to classify anomalies of development is very much a live issue at the present time. Classifications can be made for many different purposes. For a start, it seems to me helpful to draw a distinction between strong and weak taxonomies. I illustrate this distinction by a series of examples....

Gender Ratio In Dyslexia

It had been widely supposed from the time of Hinshelwood and Orton that there were more dyslexic males than females. However, quite a stir was created in the 1990s when some researchers in the USA challenged this view (see, in particular, Shaywitz et al., 1990). Head teachers of schools for dyslexic pupils in Britain had always planned for an excess of boys, and if they were now to have an increased intake of girls this would have all kinds of planning implications - more female staff, building...

References

Augur, J. and Briggs, S. (1992) The Hickey Multisensory Language Course, Whurr, London. Baddeley, A.D., Ellis, N.C., Miles, T.R. and Lewis, V. (1982) Developmental and acquired dyslexia a comparison. Cognition, 11 (2), 185-199. Black, S.R. (2001) Semantic satiation and lexical resolution. American Journal of Psychology, 114 (4), 493-510. Blanchard, P. (1946) Psychoanalytic contributions to the problems of reading disabilities. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 163-187. See in particular...

The Bangor Dyslexia Test I

How, then, did the Bangor Dyslexia Test originate and what did I wish it to achieve In the first place I believed that dyslexia was a syndrome - a family of manifestations, having a constitutional basis. There was in the 1970s only circumstantial evidence for the constitutional basis the condition ran in families, which suggested a genetic basis, and, more speculatively, it was possible that there were analogies between the behaviour of the children whom I was assessing and the behaviour of...

Service for the County of Gwynedd

I had not been serving for long on the Word-Blind committee when the University College of North Wales, Bangor (as it then was) decided, as part of its expansion programme, to create a Department of Psychology and to appoint a professor as its head. I applied for this post and was successful. In those days funding came from the government via a body called the University Grants Committee. I remember shortly after my appointment that its chairman, Sir John Wolfenden, visited Bangor and made...

Times Tables And Subtraction

I had been asked at one point to teach spelling to a dyslexic boy from St David's College who, I was told, also had difficulty in learning his times tables - would I help I had no idea why the boy found his tables difficult, but I can never resist bait and therefore agreed to explore the matter. When I did so, it became immediately obvious that his difficulty with his tables was part and parcel of his dyslexia. I also noted that, although he was aged about 12, he still used his fingers for...

Final Thoughts

I now think that Brenda's difficulty in drawing the plan of her house and drawing a bicycle is atypical of dyslexics in general. Certainly I found that in later writings I had no occasion to use the expression 'constructional apraxia'. It is clear, however, that I was aware even at the time of some of the problems in determining a dyslexic child's intelligence, and this problem was one which very much came to the fore in subsequent years. Looking back, I am now aware that there were many...

Dyslexia In The Kannada Language

I was lucky to have the opportunity to collaborate with two colleagues, S. Ramaa whose Ph.D. I had examined and M. S. Lalithamma. Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken in some parts of India. We were particularly interested to discover if the manifestations of dyslexia were basically the same in a part of the world where there was a different writing system and where English was not the child's first language note 15.9 . For full details of what we did the reader is referred to Ramaa et al....

Dyslexics Oral Language

When I was giving the Picture Completion subtest of the Wechsler 1974 Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised, Eileen Stirling, who was sitting in with me as part of her M.Ed. course, noticed that when the children were asked to name the part which was missing from the picture many of them avoided the necessity for naming by pointing - correctly - to the missing part and saying, 'That bit.' It occurred to Eileen that this was something which might be worth studying in its own right how good...

Michael

Michael was referred to the Bangor Child Guidance Clinic at the age of nine years nine months. His extreme weakness at reading and spelling had already caused his parents concern, and they wished for further investigation. I myself was not responsible for his original testing, but as his teacher I had ample opportunity thereafter for observing his behaviour. Performance IQ 129 Wechsler, 1949 Terman-Merrill IQ 128 Terman and Merrill, 1937 Schonell Graded Word Reading test reading age 5.3...

Performance Of Dyslexics And Nondyslexics On The Rorschach Ink Blot Test

Ann Williams was a very experienced clinical psychologist whose home was in North America but whose family had had connections with Wales. She therefore Table 15.1. Frequency distribution of differences in dyslexia index between first and second assessments Table 15.1. Frequency distribution of differences in dyslexia index between first and second assessments came over to Bangor to study for her Ph.D. This was in the 1970s. At this stage we felt we knew a certain amount about the cognitive...

Foreword

In this fascinating autobiographical account, Tim Miles leads us through the history of his involvement in the field of dyslexia and in so doing completes an important part of the jigsaw of the history of dyslexia in Britain. Tim Miles is well known as a pioneer of dyslexia, and most would characterise his scholarship as straddling psychological and philosophical inquiry. Here we learn that Tim's inspiration came from the careful study of individual cases what unfolds is the development of an...

The Bangor Dyslexia Test II

Combining a clinical approach with a statistical one was not always easy. At an early stage in the research I presented a paper to my colleagues with the title 'How Do I Score the crikey ' The situation which I envisaged was one in which a subject, presented, for instance, with a request to say the months of the year, responded, 'Oh, crikey ' - and then proceeded to say the months of the year correctly. Was I to ignore the 'crikey' on the grounds that it was a one-off remark which could not be...