Pathologic Findings Gross Findings

As high-grade reflux is such an important and representative form of chronic interstitial nephritis, it alone will be the focus of this discussion. When examined grossly, the kidney in patients with reflux and chronic interstitial nephritis (also called reflux nephropathy) has scarring primarily at the poles with dilated calyces and overlying thinned pale parenchyma. These areas have irregular, broad, deep scars with contraction. The other areas of kidney may not be affected, or may have a finely granular surface indicating ischemic effect. The walls of the affected calyces and pelvis are thickened. In contrast, with obstruction there are diffuse pelvicalyceal dilatation and uniform parenchymal thinning. Calculi may or may not be

Aspergillus Bronchoscopy
Figure 14.1. In this low-magnification photograph, there is a large area of tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration; few completely sclerotic glomeruli are present [periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stain].

evident. The renal surface is smooth or finely granular with only shallow scars induced by ischemia.

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How To Reduce Acne Scarring

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