The Focus The Bible

When Christians have a question about what their behavior should be, they go to the Bible, which they consider the word of God, for guidance. They may go to other sources as well e.g., ministers and counselors , but the Good Book is their primary source for answers. That is now the place to go for examples of Biblical behavior modification. Although they are not always immediately evident, the Bible is replete with examples of respondent conditioning. In fact, Christians are to associate all...

Analogue Behavioral Observation

Analogue behavioral observation is a behavioral assessment method in which a clinician observes a client's behavior in a contrived environment e.g., a waiting room, play room, clinical setting to assess variables hypothesized to influence behavior. Although analogue assessment is a direct measure of behavior, the target behavior is observed outside of the individual's natural environment. A special section of the journal Psychological Assessment Vol. 13, No. 1 is devoted to a discussion of...

In Vivo versus Imaginal Flooding

Clients may be exposed to actual feared stimuli (in vivo flooding) or may be asked to picture feared stimuli (imaginal flooding). Deciding which procedure to employ requires clinicians to consider practical matters as well as prior research. Overall, studies have found that in vivo exposure is superior to imaginal exposure in reducing anxiety symptoms. In particular, for simple phobias, anxiety reduction is clearly enhanced with in vivo exposure. However, in vivo stimuli presentation has been...

Competing Response Practice

The goal of competing response practice is to teach the client to engage in a competing response each time the habit behavior occurs or when an antecedent to the habit behavior occurs. The therapist implements competing response practice after awareness training is completed, and the client can identify each occurrence of the habit or antecedents to the habit. To begin competing response practice, the client with the aid of the therapist chooses one or more competing responses that can be used...

Habituation and Extinction Models

Processes often cited as explanation for the effects of exposure are habituation and extinction. Habituation refers to a decline in fear responses, particularly the physiological responses, over repeated exposures to fear-provoking stimuli. Habituation is regarded as an unlearned temporary reaction. Habitua-tion is supposed not to be affected by cognitions. The classical habituation theory predicts that habituation would not occur if (baseline) arousal were high. Then, arousal would further...

Classical Conditioning

Exposure Therapies Applications and Exclusions V Case Illustration VI. Summary classical conditioning A form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. After a sufficient number of trials the neutral stimulus comes to elicit responses similar to those originally evoked by the unconditioned stimulus. counter-conditioning A classical conditioning procedure in which a stimulus that formerly elicited one response (e.g., pleasure) is...

Behavioral Observation 1 Naturalistic Behavioral Observation

Naturalistic behavioral observation is a behavioral assessment method in which an individual is observed in his or her natural environment (e.g., home, school, work), usually in a context that is most associated with a problem behavior. Typically, observations are made on a predetermined schedule by one or more observers. A time sampling interval is determined a priori (e.g., 20-second periods, 5-minute periods) and the observer records the occurrences of the target behavior and or other...

Beck Therapy Approach

Cognitive Conceptualization Diagram

Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research, University of Pennsylvania I. Description of Treatment II. Theoretical Basis III. Efficacy IV Summary automatic thought An idea that seems to arise in one's mind spontaneously, in verbal or imaginal from. belief One's basic understandings of oneself, one's world, and other people. cognition A thought, image, rule, attitude, assumption, or belief. cognitive distortion A type of thinking error. schema A relatively stable and enduring mental...

Cognitive Behavioral Case Formulation

Jacqueline Persons is one of several cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapists who have developed case formulation methods, but hers may be the best known. The method draws extensively from Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy, which holds that psychological symptoms and problems result from the activation of maladaptive core beliefs under conditions of stressful life events. The CB case formulation approach also draws from behavior therapy, which emphasizes measurement to track change and the...

Instruction of Differential Relaxation

The session starts with the patient sitting in the armchair relaxing on their own with the help of CR. When the patient has signaled that they are relaxed, they then follow the instruction to perform certain movements with different parts of the body while at the same time concentrating on being as relaxed as possible in the rest of the body. During the performance of these movements the patient should scan the body often (i.e., think through the different muscle groups) in order to discover...