Summary

Clinical trials provide evidence of the degree of effectiveness of a specific treatment compared to various control groups under rigidly controlled experimental conditions that allow researchers to make causal inferences about the causes of improvement. Clinical trials involve taking a theoretical rational for the disorder of interest, a hypothesized chain linking change mechanisms to specific interventions, and operationalization of interventions that promote the likelihood of replication. They also include the identification and careful selection of a target population and use of measures that are appropriate to the disorder and relevant to symptomatic recovery and daily functioning. Therapists are carefully selected, trained, monitored, supervised, and their adherence to treatment manuals and competence are ensured. The data that result are subjected to appropriate statistical analysis including the extent to which differences between treatment and control groups are probable. They attempt to delineate the mechanisms through which psychotherapy operates. Because of the rigorous design demands, clinical trials are limited in their ability to generalize to routine practice, thus they must be followed by effectiveness research paradigms.

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Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

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