Negative Effects

Although some authors initially claimed that there were no negative effects associated to DRO procedures, this may not always be true. One concern with the use of DRO schedules is the possibility of inadvertently reinforcing a non-target behavior that could become a problem behavior. Skinner accurately described the effects of superstitious conditioning in the laboratory with pigeons. Superstitious behavior, or behavior that is irrelevant to the presentation of the reinforcer, is seen everyday (e.g., in gambling establishments). Inadvertent reinforcement within a DRO procedure might occur when the presentation of a reinforcer immedi ately follows a behavior that happens to occur at the end of an interval. For example, if a child is on a 10-min fixed whole-interval DRO schedule and the target behavior is being out of seat. At the end of a 10-min interval during which the child sat quietly but might have been throwing spit balls at a peer, the child will receive the reinforcer. In this situation, the child's throwing of spit balls might be accidentally reinforced.

Cowerdy, Iwata, and Pace reported that their DRO procedure was associated with a intense emotional reaction on the part of the child. In their study, a 9-year-old boy with borderline intellectual functioning and severe scratching and skin-rubbing behavior became upset and cried each time he was told that he had failed to earn his reinforcer for the preceding interval because of the presence of self-injurious behavior. Some negative side effects can be avoided by conducting a systematic thorough reinforcer preference.

Generally speaking, DRO procedures are among the least restrictive procedures used to suppress problem behaviors. In addition, DRO procedures generally result in the least negative side effects and are the most accepted form of intervention.

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Exploring EFT

Exploring EFT

EFT stands for Emotional Freedom Technique. It works to free the user of both physical and emotional pain and relieve chronic conditions by healing the physical responses our bodies make after we've been hurt or experienced pain. While some people do not carry the effects of these experiences, others have bodies that hold onto these memories, which affect the way the body works. Because it is a free and fast technique, even if you are not one hundred percent committed to whether it works or not, it is still worth giving it a shot and seeing if there is any improvement.

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