U.S. therapists have had a love-hate relationship with the dream. The Interpretation of Dreams contained Freud's self-analysis, and following the publication of the book, dream interpretation became synonymous with psychoanalysis. The controversy whether the dream holds an exceptional and unique position in psychotherapy or whether it is just one of many types of material with which therapists deal in psychotherapy still goes on. One sees many types of material in doing therapy, all of which are important, but it is also true that dreams at times can give much insight into a patient's unconscious problems. Symptoms, defenses, affect, behavior, and other dimensions of therapy are all important, but the dream is still perceived by many as the best means to the unconscious. The decline in the position of the dream in psychoanalysis has been thought to be due to the increased popularity of the relationist/interpersonal school that places much less emphasis on dreams, to the development of the structural theory, to new views on narcissism, and to new theoretical approaches that place less importance on the id, primary process, and the unconscious, and more on the secondary process, the ego, the self, and adaptation.
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