Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Functional Phytochemicals from Cranberries Their Mechanism of Action and Strategies to Improve Functionality

7.2.1 Phenolic Phytochemicals from Related Phenolic Phytochemicals from Cranberries 166 Phenolic compounds or phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plant origin which constitute one of the most abundant groups of natural compounds and form an important component of both human and animal diets (1,2,3). These phenolic metabolites function to protect the plant against biological and environmental stresses and are therefore synthesized in response to pathogenic attack, such as fungal or bacterial infection, or high energy radiation exposure, such as prolonged UV exposure (4,5). Because of their important biological functions, phenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants and therefore find their place in almost all food groups. Common fruits such as apples, cranberries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries, and fruit beverages like red wine and apple and orange juices, are rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. In addition to fruits, vegetables such as cabbage and...

Antioxidants from fruits and berries overview

Fruits and berries are good sources of antioxidants, including carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. It has been known for a long time that the phenolics, as well as some of the other antioxidant components, are closely associated with the sensory attributes of fresh and processed fruits, berries and other plant foods. Especially, the contribution to colour by carotenoids (yellow to orange and red) and anthocyanins (red to purple and blue) is well known. Also the specific involvement of some of the phenolic substances in flavour development and taste sensation is amply documented.1 Phenolic compounds, including those having potent antioxidant activity, are also substrates for undesirable, oxidative browning reactions occurring during bruising of fruits, when fruits are cut or during their processing. The possible beneficial biological functions of the traditional antioxidant vitamins, i.e. ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol and to a certain extent...


Strawberries are a major crop with worldwide production estimated at 1,260,000 tons (15). The U.S. produces about 700,000 tons with about 80 of the production in California. Strawberries are not true berries in the botanical sense but are aggregate or multiple fruits. Strawberries belong to the family Rosaceae and the genus Fragaria. Many domesticated cultivars are crosses between F. chil-oensis and F. virginiana, also known as F. ananassa. The plants are planted one year, bear fruit the second year, and sometimes are allowed to produce for a third year before replanting. Strawberries are picked by hand and transported in flats for the fresh trade or for processing. The major processed products are frozen purees and puree concentrates for use in jams, preserves, and nectars. Strawberries are also frozen as whole or sliced fruit individually or in blocks, with or without sugar. Strawberries are also canned or made into juice concentrate. Dehydrated berries, fruit preparations,...


Berry is a general term for fruits that are usually small, rounded, and pulpy with seeds embedded in a juicy flesh. The term is loosely applied to a range of fruits belonging to vastly diverse botanical families. Aside from the more popular berries such as the blackberry, blueberry, cranberry, currant, raspberry, and strawberry, there are a host of less common species, each with its own distinctive shape, color, fragrance, and taste. Berries were a staple in the diets of our hunting-and-gathering ancestors and still play an important role in the culinary traditions of many peoples around the world. American Indians used various types of berries as food, medicine, dyes, and food preservatives. Early American settlers developed a taste for the many varieties growing wild in woods and fields of North America, and they learned to use the berries for food and medicine Research has shown that several berries have medicinal properties. (Cranberries and blueberries help prevent urinary tract...

Benzoic Acid Benzoates

Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate were the first antimicrobial compounds permitted in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Benzoic acid occurs naturally in cranberries, plums, prunes, apples, strawberries, cinnamon, cloves, and most berries. The undissociated form of benzoic acid (pKa 4.19) is the most effective antimicrobial agent therefore, the most effective pH range is 2.5 to 4.5.

Evolutionary Aspects Of Diet

The foods that were commonly available to preagricultural humans (lean meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, berries, and honey) were the foods that shaped modern humans' genetic nutritional requirements. Cereal grains as a staple food are a relatively recent addition to the human diet and represent a dramatic departure from those foods to which we are genetically programmed and adapted (Cordain, 1999 Simopoulos, 1995a Simopoulos, 1999d). Cereals did not become a part of our food supply until very recently 10,000 yr ago with the advent of the Agricultural Revolution. Prior to the Agricultural Revolution, humans ate an enormous variety of wild plants, whereas, today, about 17 of plant species provide 90 of the world's food supply, with the greatest percentage contributed by cereal grains (Cordain, 1999 Simopoulos, 1995a Simopoulos, 1999d). Three cereals, wheat, maize, and rice, together account for 75 of the world's grain production. Human beings have become entirely...

Health Core Value Propositions

Another core value proposition of most e-health domains and applications is improving two-way or multiple-party communications, thereby significantly improving access to e-health care, especially for those located in rural or remote areas. For example, technologies such as e-mail, Blackberries (wireless devices with organizer features providing access to email, corporate data, phone, and the Web ), secured Internet Web sites, personal data assistants (PDAs), virtual private networks (VPNs) and wireless cellular phones can enhance long-distance communications among e-health professionals or between e-health professionals and e-patients in different sectors, including communications between e-physicians and e-patients, laboratory test clinics and doctors, e-consumers and e-home care workers, e-physicians and e-pharmacists for verification of on-line prescription orders, and e-generalists and e-specialists for e-consultations on various subjects.

Hot Breakfast Cereals Oats

In making oat flakes, the oat grain is first heated with dry steam, which reduces its moisture content to approximately 6 . Enzymes that produce rancid flavors during storage are deactivated during steaming. A high-speed impact operation separates the dry friable hull from the groat (oat berries). Even a small percentage of whole oats remaining is unacceptable because the hull fraction in oat flakes is unpalatable. Whole rolled oats are produced by flaking the whole groat.

Philosophical Perspectives

Whatever the outcome, some assert that an intelligent machine can never really feel like we do, enjoy the taste of strawberries or the thrills of love, so it must always fall short of full human intelligence. At best, machine will only simulate such feelings, and this is a far cry from actually experiencing them as a human does.

Antioxidants from vegetables overview

The antioxidants present in commonly consumed vegetables include ascorbic acid, tocopherols, carotenoids and phenolic compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids (Table 3.3). In comparison to fruits and berries, vegetables generally contain much lower amounts of antioxidant compounds. A large amount of vitamin C is found in sweet red pepper (1850mgkg-1) and significant amounts in Brussels sprouts (up to 900mgkg-1) and broccoli (750-830 mg kg-1), while

Effect of different processing technologies on antioxidant activity

Food processing involves changes in structural integrity of the plant material and this produces both negative and positive effects. When the negative and positive effects counterbalance each other, no change in the antioxidant activity occurs.115 The antioxidant activity is diminished owing to inactivation of antioxidant compounds caused by oxidation, for example, by enzymes (polyphenoloxidase and others) or leaching into the cooking water. Both negative changes have a greater impact on the water-soluble antioxidants, vitamin C, flavonoids and phenolic acids, than on the lipid-soluble antioxidants, carotenoids and tocopherols. The positive effects of food processing include transformation of antioxidants into more active compounds, such as the deglycosylation of onion quercetin,106 as well as an increase in the antioxidant activity owing to inhibition of enzymes.81 Peeling and juicing result in substantial losses of carotenoids, anthocyanins, hydroxycin-namates and flavanols as the...

Sources of further information and advice

Effect of an elevated intake of natural antioxidants when they are consumed in their concentrated form, even when extracted from natural sources of fruits, berries and vegetables. Much more research is therefore needed on the anti-oxidant effects of natural antioxidant mixtures, on the influence of various types of processing on natural antioxidants and on the possible influence of the natural matrix on the antioxidant and nutritional effects.

Recommended Refrigerated Storage Conditions

Its quality is impaired and shelf life is shortened as the injury itself is irreversible. Sanford and co-workers173 reported that weight loss and the incidence of shriveling or splitting in lowbush blueberries are major attributes that contribute to the loss of market value arising from mechanical damage and too low a storage temperature. Ballinger and co-workers174 recommended that for the fresh market, blueberries should not be exposed to temperatures exceeding 10 C and should be preferably kept at or near 1 C. The major qualitative characteristics that contribute to low commercial yield of fruits are loss of firmness, loss of bloom, and loss of the blue anthocyanin coloration either through leakage from the berry or chemical disruption of the pigment.173 Sanford and co-workers173 found 0 C storage to result in optimum conditions of the product. Short storage life is a problem in raspberries due to their fragile structure and rapid deterioration. Even under recommended storage...

Cultural Overview

The traditional method of hunting bison was to drive a herd into a corral built against a bluff or at the end of a ravine. Corrals continued to be used until the extermination of wild bison in the 1870s, although pursuit from horseback was an alternative method for the final century of Blackfoot independence. Once the bison had been slaughtered in a corral, teams of six (men and women) butchered the kill. Hides were tanned for tipi covers, winter robes, and bedding. The meat was sliced thin and air-dried for preservation. Pounding dried meat with berries and rendered fat made pemmican, a highly nutritious compact food that could be stored in hide bags for months. Bison bones were made into cutting blades, scrapers, and tool handles. Bison wool could be spun and woven, although historically Blackfoot preferred to purchase woven bags from neighboring nations and cloth from European traders. Blackfoot made pottery before the European trade introduced more durable metal kettles. Elk,...

Pathogens Targeted For Bcpd Of Fruits

Significant successes were achieved with biocontrol of latent infections caused by Colletotrichum spp. on mango and avocado (Korsten and Jeffries 2000), and to a lesser extent by B. cinerea on strawberries (Helbig 2002 Ippolito et al. 1998 Peng and Sutton 1990 Takeda and Janisiewicz, unpublished results). Biological control of these diseases must start in the field, relies on multiple application of the antagonist, and is generally more difficult to achieve.

Quality deterioration of fresh produce fungal and bacterial pathogens

Only a small number of fungal pathogens are capable of direct penetration of the undamaged skin of the produce. On the whole, these latter pathogens are particularly problematic owing to the fact that they may infect produce before harvest but remain quiescent in the tissues until conditions become favourable for growth. This phenomenon is largely seen in fruits, where initial pathogen development and subsequent quiescence occurs in the unripe fruit. As the fruit ripens, quiescence is broken and the pathogen colonises the fruit tissues (Swinburne, 1983). Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a common pathogen showing this behaviour on a number of tropical fruits such as mango and papaya. Typical symptoms on ripe fruits are sunken, lens-shaped lesions, which may develop salmon-coloured sporing structures. Colletotrichum musae causes similar symptoms on bananas. Botrytis cinerea may also show quiescent behaviour on certain fruits, for example, in strawberries, fungal spores contaminate the...

Description And Application Of Methods Electromagnetic Radiation

Additionally, color is often associated with consumer acceptability of the product. Reflectance from the outer few cells of the product is used in grading lines of packing houses to sort apples, carrots, citrus, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, potatoes, and tomatoes according to defined color categories (1). Diffuse reflectance in the 640- to 750-nm wavelength range is used to predict maturity of lettuce, oranges, and peaches (2,3) based on the chlorophyll content, which has peak absorption at 680 nm. The difference in absorbance (optical density) at 690 nm and 740 nm (noted as zlOD 690-740 nm ) was associated with ripeness of apple (4). Maturity of tomatoes is based on chlorophyll and lycopene contents, which can be predicted by zlOD (710-780 nm) and zlOD (570-780 nm) values, respectively (5). Maturity of blueberries, papayas, and peaches can also be predicted by transmittance based on pigment content. The effectiveness of ripeness sorting by these...

Mass production of food

Large food companies have a lot at stake so one might argue that they would be even more diligent about minimizing the frequency and extent of pathogen contamination in their food products. Firms that face a large public recall of product or that are implicated in a foodborne illness outbreak may suffer business losses, such as from lost reputation, reduced stock prices, plants closed for cleanup or permanently shut down, food poisoning lawsuits, premiums raised for product liability insurance, and demand for product reduced enough to threaten entire markets or industries (Buzby et al., 2001). One example of a whole industry being affected by a foodborne illness outbreak is the Guatemalan raspberry industry. After repeated Cyclospora outbreaks in the United States and Canada from contaminated raspberries, only 3 Guatemalan raspberry producers

Mass distribution of food

Additionally, to meet export demand, low-income countries may cultivate non-indigenous crops that may be more susceptible to indigenous pathogens (Saker et al., 2004). A prime example of this is when Guatemalan producers grew non-native raspberries for commercial export (Saker et al., 2004). In 1996 and 1997, Cyclospora outbreaks in Canada and the United States were attributed to Guatemalan raspberries (Calvin, 2003). In short, the globalization of the food supply has the potential to create new agricultural and ecological challenges.

Gender Roles in Economics

Women go foraging everyday for an average of 4hrs, usually in groups of about three to eight but never alone. Both sexes gather baobab and berries, but women take more of these back to camp than men or children do. Men spend an average of 6 hours foraging every day, usually alone, though sometimes in pairs, especially in the dry season when they hunt at night waiting to ambush animals that come to drink (Marlowe, 2003). Men always carry their bow and arrows and so are always ready to hunt, even when they are specifically going out for honey. They will climb tall baobab trees to get honey and sometimes fall to their death.

Leadership in Public Arenas

While men may talk about moving camp, it is usually not until the women are ready to move that a move occurs. Moves often occur because women are forced to go too far to get tubers, or because berries have just ripened elsewhere. Old people who are not senile are often called upon to make decisions and settle disputes. Men do most of the public oratory and decision-making, but women voice their opinion, sometimes in public and plenty at home, often loudly.

Advantages of timeresolved optical methods

Different non-destructive techniques have been proposed to probe a variety of quality-related factors in fruits.1 For example, anthocyanins in strawberries have been detected by photoacoustic techniques.2 The artificial nose, with its potential to detect small quantities of released chemicals, may prove useful for those aspects of quality related to aroma production3 even though few data on such applications are currently available. Ultrasounds cannot penetrate deeply into the pulp of most fruits owing to the porous nature of the tissue, yet some promising results have been obtained using low frequency ultrasounds.4 Nuclear magnetic resonance appears promising in terms of specificity and spatial resolution,5 but is not suitable for in-the-field or mass applications.

Genetic Modification in Animals and Plants

GM traits that have already been introduced into plants include resistance to insects, insecticides, and herbicides larger fruits salt tolerance slowed ripening additional nutrients easier processing insecticide production and the ability to take its own nitrogen from the air, lowering reliance on fertilizer. Specific products of genetic manipulation include insect-resistant corn, frost-resistant strawberries, rice that makes beta-carotene (a

Antioxidant Activity Of Vaccinium Empetrum Rubus

Berries constitute a significant source of antioxidants, the most significant compounds being flavonoids, phenolic acids and to a minor extent ascorbic acid. Carotenoids may contribute to the antioxidant activity in, for example, carotenoid-rich sea buckthorn berry (Hippophae rhamnoides L. cv. Indian-Summer) that had a high antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene bleaching method.57 The antioxidant activity of berries and antioxidant compounds (mainly phenolics) isolated from berries has been investigated using various antioxidant assays and has resulted in somewhat contradictory findings depending on the choice of methods. For example, high antioxidant capacity is reported for strawberries by using radical model systems,22,52,58 while in lipid oxidation models (methyl linoleate, LDL) phenolic extracts from strawberries ranked among the least active antioxidants compared to the activities of other berries.29,54 The most potent berries were crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), cloudberry...

What are Fluorescence Inhibitors and Coatings of Debris

Ellagic acid is a highly efficient DNA-binding polyhydroxyphenol and belongs to a class of hydrolyzable tannins known as ellagitannins. It is abundant in certain fruits, for example, in strawberries and raspberries, and has anticancer activity, which can be explained by its anti-methylation properties resulting from a double-helical DNA affinity binding mechanism, rather than by an oxidant-scavenging mechanism (Dixit and Gold 1986).

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants to protect themselves against biological and environmental stresses such as pathogen attack or high energy radiation exposure (1,2). These compounds involved in the plant defense response are one of the most abundant classes of phytochemicals and are also invariably important components of our diets (3,4,5). Commonly consumed fruits such as apples, bananas, grapes, and several types of berries and their beverages are examples of plant foods as sufficiently rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. Similar phytochemicals in our diet are also obtained from diverse commonly consumed vegetables such as tomato, cabbage, and onions to grains such as cereals and millets as well as legumes such as soybean, common beans, mung beans, fava beans, and peas, depending on the specific regions of the world (4,5,6). In addition many different types of herbs and spices containing phenolic

Gases And Modified Atmospheres

Ozone (O3) is a strong antimicrobial agent with numerous applications in the food industry. It has been used for decades in many countries and was recently given GRAS status in the United States. Ozone in the aqueous or gaseous phase is active against a wide range of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most applications are targeted to decontamination of fruit and vegetable surfaces by washing in ozonated water (Xu 1999). A second application is fruit and vegetable storage. Barth et al. (1995) assessed ozone exposure on storage of blackberries stored at 2 C in air with 0.3 ppm ozone. Fungal development was suppressed while 20 of the control fruits showed decay. The effectiveness of ozone is influenced by the intrinsic factors of a food. It also oxidizes food surfaces when used at high levels. Further research may reduce some of these concerns so ozone can be used in broader food applications.

Animal Toxins and Plant Toxicants

Overall, healthy individuals can tolerate naturally occurring toxicants. However, there are several conditions under which natural toxicants can create problems. Inborn errors of metabolism or certain drug interactions can make individuals prone to problems caused by natural toxicants. Whereas nutrients can be beneficial to most, they can be deleterious to some, e.g., consumption of lactose by lactose-intolerant people. Other examples include individuals with celiac sprue, sucrase deficiency, fructose intolerance, galactosemia, and phenylketonuria. Individuals taking drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase enzymes can be affected when eating cheeses or drinking wines, which are high in tyramine. Individuals with sensitivities due to allergies can be affected by foods. Hypersensitivity to a particular substance produces anaphylactic shock. Examples of foods that cause allergies include milk, wheat, nuts, citrus, strawberries, fish (shellfish), and egg. Some individuals have bizarre food...

Thermodynamic Properties

However, the quick freezing may also result in cracking of the product surface if sufficient precautions are not taken. The freezant consumption is in the range of 1.2-2.0 kg per kilogram of product. The capacity can vary from 150 to 1000 kg h, and typical products are meat cuts, fish fillets, seafood, fruit, berries, pies, and pastries.

In combination with cooling and heating

The quality of 'fresh' thawed foods preserved through freezing can be somewhat disappointing in terms of texture. This is particularly true of soft fruits such as strawberries. The problem arises because the small ice crystals that are formed initially inside of the cellular material of the food continue to grow. As these crystals increase in size they break some of the cell walls leading to a partial destruction of the structure of the material. This deleterious growth occurs during the 'dwell time' between the initiation of crystallisation (usually at about 3 0C) and complete freezing at which point the temperature of the whole item can fall. To avoid this problem food must be frozen quickly to encourage mass nucleation of ice crystals and reduce crystal size. Under the influence of ultrasound a much more rapid and even seeding occurs and this leads to a much shorter dwell time (Acton and Morris, 1992). In addition, since there are a greater number of...

Process Control Applications

Color machine vision (CMV) can be used to monitor color of incoming and final products, extent of cooking process, and pigment concentration. Strong correlations were found between a colorimeter and CMV systems (CMVS) and colors as perceived by humans (10). Among the applications of a CMVS are the monitoring and measurement of product color, extent of retort, and other thermal processes through chemical markers. One such application is the monitoring of baked and roasted materials as an indication of quality or degree of cooking (11). Baked muffins (doneness), roasted peanuts, and pizzas (mapping) are some of the specific products (Fig. 5). Minimum description analysis is used when the quantity of irrelevant colors (e.g., blueberries in muffins, raisins with peanuts, etc.) vary between samples (12).

Philodendron Elephants

All parts of the plant are toxic, but especially the roots, unripe berries, and seeds. Phytotoxins (phytolaccotoxin and phytolaccine) cause direct mucosal irritation and GI symptoms. Patients complain of burning in the mouth and throat, with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea that may be foamy.15 Severe intoxications may result in coma and death. Although their safety riains somewhat controversial, ripe berries are occasionally used in pies and the leaves boiled for greens. Treatment is GI decontamination with iesis or lavage, charcoal, and supportive care consisting of fluid-electrolyte replacient.

Transmission And Epidemiology 351 Cyclospora

This concept changed in the spring of 1996, when a large food-borne outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred in North America, affecting 1465 people from 20 states, the District of Columbia, and two provinces (Herwaldt and Ackers, 1997). Epidemi-ological investigations confirmed the vast majority of cases were associated with 55 events that served raspberries. This investigations later demonstrated a significant association between cyclosporiasis and consumption of raspberries imported from Guatemala (Herwaldt and Ackers, 1997). Detailed epidemiological descriptions of specific events included a wedding reception in Massachusetts (Fleming et al., 1998), and a luncheon in Charleston, S.C. where 38 of 64 attendees met the case definition of cyclosporiasis (Caceres et al., 1998). Cluster investigations in Florida showed that raspberries were the only food common to this outbreak and confirmed them to be imported from Guatemala as well (Katz et al., 1999). In the spring of 1997, another large...

Natural Cloudy Juices

It is common to produce natural cloudy juices and concentrates as standard products from specific fruit varieties such as citrus, exotic fruit and also from apple, pear and berries. Freshly squeezed juices can be bottled as such. The juice is heated (85 -90 C) and hotfilled into clean bottles. The bottles are closed and then immediately cooled with water as quickly as possible to avoid deterioration of the juice due to the high temperature. The high filling temperature sterilises bottles and product.

Nutritional Properties

With their vivid color and their delicate flavor, Vaccinium berries stimulate the appetite. The energy supply of sugars, organic acids, minerals, and vitamins contained in them is important. However, an essential role is played by the phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and OPCs. These phytochemicals are also responsible for the medicinal properties of bilberries (15-17). Flavonols and simple phenols retard the oxidation of ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and carotenoids, thus preserving their nutritional value and exerting a bacteriostatic action (18). Several scientific reports (19) have shown how phenolic substances, present in foods of plant origin, play an important role in nutrition. In Vaccinium berries, this fact is attributable to anthocyanins and procyanidins. They act as antioxidants in protecting the body from degenerative phenomena caused by the oxidation of lipids (cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, etc.), and they have a chemopreventive action against the...

Pharmacological Properties

Figure 3 shows some pharmaceutical formulations anthocyanin-containing from bilberries. Other experimental and clinical studies have shown outstanding wound-healing, mucopoietic, capillaroprotec-tive effects, not only on superficial wounds but also on the gastric mucosa and duodenum (40-46). Elderly persons, patients with diabetes, and persons with coronary disease, hypertension, or ulcers are among those who could greatly benefit from a diet rich in blueberries, cranberries, and whortleberries.

Byproducts of irradiation

Result from the breakdown of triglycerides amino acids that make up proteins and compounds (hydrocarbons) commonly found in the waxy coverings of fruits such as apples, pears, and berries. Others are fatty compounds identical to those found from cooking meat by common methods such as grilling. The other 10 of radiolytic compounds are chemically very similar to natural components in food. The chemistry of irradiation is very predictable, and the products of an individual component such as proteins are not affected by the type of food or other food components present. Radiolytic products have been critically tested for toxicity and no evidence of hazards has been found.

Husband Wife Relationship

Husbands and wives lived together in their section of his clan house and, in season, they traveled together to summer fishing camps. Men and women had specific tasks, but women were said to have hunted when their husbands were gone and men gathered berries and cooked when wives were away.

Fruit And Fruit Juices

Strawberries were the first popular frozen fruit in the United States. They were mixed with sugar in wooden barrels and placed in a cold store where the barrels were turned regularly to ensure proper mixing of the fruit juice sugar while being slowly frozen. Chilled whole fruit has eroded the market for this melange that is used in jams, jellies, ice cream, and so on. In the berry-producing countries of Eastern Europe the introduction of individually quick-frozen (IQF) berries, packed hygienically in tote bins each containing perhaps a thousand kilograms has superseded the sulfited pulps in wooden barrels used in the production of conserves and so on. Most whole fruit suffer a substantial loss of texture and mouth-feel during freezing and storage and are used in further manufacture into pies, flans, jams, jellies, tortes, and so on.

Plantmicrobe interactions

The influence of microbes on the welfare of plants is not confined to the ground and may even affect the weather. An often quoted example is that drawn from Pseudomonas syringae which produces a protein known to act as a point of nucleation of ice crystals. Plants which harbour this bacterium run an increased risk of frost damage especially if their tissue is particularly susceptible as is the case with strawberries. P. syringae has been subjected to genetic engineering which successfully reduced the problem. A description of the project is given in Chapter 9.

St Lawrence Island Population Characteristics

Total island population, according to the United States 2000 Census, was 1,292, with residents equally divided between Gambell and Savoonga. Like most contemporary rural Eskimo communities, the islanders support themselves by combining wage labor and subsistence work marine mammal hunting, fishing, gathering of greens and berries, and related food-management tasks. Unlike most other Eskimo communities, kinship among St Lawrence Islanders is figured unilineally rather than bilaterally, and a distinguishing characteristic of St Lawrence Island and Chukotkan Yupik societies is patrilineal descent and overlapping patriclan-type units (Hughes, 1958, 1960). The island's engagement in the American capitalist system and the traditional subsistence system along with its continued adherence to a patrilineal kinship system are integral to understanding island gender concepts. Most importantly, the island is American, with all that this implies, and has been since 1867. Children and adults...

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Recognition of Girls' Sewing and Gathering Achievements. Because of the shift in learning traditional subsistence tasks among girls, a girl's sewing achievements or food-gathering and or preparation achievements are less likely to be celebrated at home, since these will most likely take place after she has married or in the context of instruction in a culture class in the local high school. In the past, these tasks would have been mastered at home under the instruction of a grandmother or an elderly aunt (one of her father's or grandfather's unmarried sisters, or one of her father's brother's wives) and celebrated within the home. A girl's first sewing accomplishment would have been given to a senior elder. Her first collection of greens or berries would have been given to a senior woman outside her immediate family or to a respected widower.

Contents In Fruits And Vegetables And Its Products

Among phenolic acids found in common fruits, chloro-genic acid is the major compound found in apples (62-385 ppm), pears (64-280 ppm), cherries (11-140 ppm), plums (15-142 ppm), peaches (43-282 ppm), and apricot (37-123 ppm). This is followed by neochlorogenic acid in cherries (73-628 ppm), plums (88-771 ppm), peaches (33-142 ppm), and apricots (26-132 ppm) and 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid in cherries (40-450 ppm), and plums (4-40 ppm). Among berries, blueberries are reported to contain the largest quantity of caffeoylquinic acids (1860-2080 ppm), followed by blackberries (45-53 ppm), and black currents (45-52 ppm) (5). The major phenolic acids in grapes are caffeoyltartaric acid, ranging from 46 to 397 ppm in white grapes (21) and from 50 to 435 ppm in the red cultivars (22).

Heat treatment blanching and canning

Heat treatments are responsible for irreversible denaturation of cellular tissue in fruits or vegetables causing softening and juice loss. Vacuum infusion technology was consequently used before heat treatment such as blanching, pasteurising and canning with an aim of limiting thermal damages in the product. It is of particular interest to note the treatment of button mushrooms (McArdle et al., 1974 Gormley and Walshe, 1986 Demeaux et al., 1988), strawberries (Main et al., 1986), apricots (French et al., 1989) and turnips (Moreira et al., 1994). Calcium lactate infusion in fresh whole or sliced strawberries improved their texture and reduced their weight loss measured after canning (Main et al., 1986) owing to the presence of calcium which reinforces the cell wall structure by forming pectates (see above). This improvement in texture by calcium infusion was also observed by French et al. (1989) on canned apricot - Patterson cultivar fruits - even if the chelator effect of exogenic or...

Refrigerated Foods Food Freezing And World Food Supply

Freezing is widely regarded as the most elegant method of long-term preservation of a wide variety of highly perishable foods at economical cost. The list of products that cannot be frozen (salad vegetables, bananas, other whole fruits, etc) is much shorter than the list of products that are successfully frozen. Freezing enables perishable products (fish, shellfish, meats, vegetables, berries, and fruit juices) to be transported across the world and to span the seasons. It makes a multitude of high-quality perishable products available year-round anywhere in the world.

Growth Factor Signaling

Phytochemicals may provide a partial defense against angiogenesis. Green tea, flax-seed, and numerous berry extracts decrease the expression of inducible VEGF. Green tea (in particular epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been extensively studied in numerous cell types including the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, which constitutively expresses high levels of VEGF (124,125). EGCG ultimately blocks VEGF expression through the inhibition of the EGF receptor, which regulates NF-kB and STAT-3, two signaling proteins which have been demonstrated to impact the VEGF promoter. Green tea catechins in endo-thelial cell lines also appear to block VEGF induced tubule formation through the regulation of VE-cadherin and the inhibition of Akt activity (126). Fruits such as Gleditsia sinensis effectively control VEGF in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line (127), and other berries (cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, blueberry, elderberry, and bilberry) appear to significantly reduce VEGF...

Food Intolerance and Allergy

The mechanism is well established for certain drugs however, no histamine-releasing substances have been isolated from such offending foods, e.g., strawberry allergy. Individuals affected by the ingestion of strawberries exhibit true food allergy symptoms, such as hives, but the symptoms are not IgE-mediated. One symptom mimics anaphylaxis.

Edible Plants and Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals associated with health promotion and disease prevention are described in Table 2. The most studied food sources of these phytonutrients are soy beans (Glycine max) and tea (Camellia sinensis leaves), but tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculen-tum), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), tart cherries (Prunus cerasus), and various types of berries are also receiving considerable attention as functional food candidates. An overview of the research on soy and tea illustrates some of the clinical issues encountered in the development of functional foods from edible plants.

Fermented Not Distilled Beverages

By definition, wine is a fermented product from fruits. By far the most important wine is produced from grapes, although it can be produced from apples, pears, berries, and other fruits. Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca are the most important species. Grape growing is a science itself (viticulture), and wine making is called enology.

Epidemiology Foodborne Disease

The eating habits of the US population have changed, with a greater emphasis on incorporating fruits and vegetables in the diet. 1 To meet this increased demand, the volume of imported fresh fruits and vegetables has escalated. Imports can account for more than 75 percent of grocery-store fruit and vegetable stock. 1 Outbreaks of foodborne illness have occurred recently in produce such as fresh squeezed orange juice, raspberries, frozen strawberries, sliced tomatoes, and lettuce. 4

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

During the past 30 years there have been many studies on the application of irradiation for improving shelf life of fresh fruits. These include tropical fruits such as bananas, mangos, and papaya subtropical fruits such as citrus and grapes and temperate fruits such as pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries. Cumming reported recently that low-dose radiation (0.2 kGy) delayed ripening of green bananas for up to 10 to 12 days.190 There was only minimal changes in pulp texture and vitamin C losses were lower than the controls. Earlier work by Ferguson et al.191 showed retardation of yellowing at a dose of 0.2 kGy and an increased preference for the flavor of the irradiated bananas 7 days after treatment. Thomas reported on shelf life extension of 10 to 12 days for some varieties.189 Several studies have shown that gamma radiation at low levels extends the shelf life of mango fruit by slowing down rates of ripening and senescence. Irradiated fruit remain edible for longer periods before...

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Prevention of Bacterial Food Poisoning

All foods entering the kitchen should be considered to be potentially hazardous. In any investigation, it is important not to assume that a food cannot be the cause just because it is unlikely or not known to have caused FP in the past. Salads and other vegetables or fruit eaten raw may be contaminated, and outbreaks have been caused by lettuce (S. sonnei and E. coli VTEC 0157), raspberries and strawberries (Cyclospora cayetanensis and hepatitis A), alfalfa sprouts (S. enteritidis), and radish sprouts grown hydroponically (E. coli VTEC

Dynamic Force and Deformation

The impact response of a product is directly related to its mechanical properties, mass, and shape. Impact is the rapid collision of two objects, whether one or both objects are in motion. Impact testing techniques include drop, falling mass (or impact probe), and impact ram. A number of impact parameters have been proposed to measure horticultural product firmness, including peak force and time in contact with the impacting object. Impact responses have been studied for apples, blueberries, cherries, kiwifruit, peaches, pears, potatoes, and tomatoes (4446). One potential problem with impact tests on fruits and vegetables is that some bruising may occur.

Changes in food preferences after infancy

See behaviour which is hard to understand, for example, they eat and apparently enjoy confectionery products with levels of sourness that are totally unacceptable to their parents. Darwin in 1877 commented on his own children's preferences for rhubarb, unripe gooseberries and cooking apples which he found disgusting. In a recent study carried out at Monell it is reported that more than 30 of five- to nine-year-old children show preferences for highly acidic confections and that this correlates with lower levels of neophobia (Liem and Menella 2003). What is puzzling is why children should show this behaviour at all since it is hard to explain it in terms of any real benefits other than the gratification of being more daring than their peers, shocking their elders or of seeking novelty.

Maintaining the quality of fresh produce controlled atmosphere CA storage

High levels of CO2 can also have a direct inhibitory effect on certain pathogens. The upper limit for CO2 levels depends on the sensitivity of the crop. Many berry crops have a high tolerance for CO2, for example, blackcurrants destined for processing into juice are often held under 40 CO2. Levels above 15 will significantly reduce incidence of grey mould on strawberries, raspberries, cherries and grapes (Kader, 1997) and small scale CA storage structures are in increasing use with these crops.

Natural Dietary Habits

When observed for a sufficient period, omnivory is clearly a combination of carnivory and herbivory. The proportions of animal and plant foods consumed by omnivorous mammals are dependent both upon species' preferences and foods available in the environment. Omnivorous species are found in taxonomic orders that include bats, marsupials, pigs, primates, rodents, and Carnivora. 1,2 However, grouping these species in an omnivorous category tends to obscure the diversity of their dietary habits. All are presumed to consume animal tissues of various types, but food selections from the plant kingdom are sometimes used to identify particular specializations. For example, bats that consume insects incidental to (or as supplements to) their principal food nectar may be called nectarivores. Primates feeding on insects and small vertebrates but predominantly on plant exudates may be known as gummivores. Rodents feeding on invertebrates and small vertebrates but mainly on seeds may be known as...

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

The major leisure activities for men and women include watching television, visiting friends, receiving guests in the home, listening to music, reading, and gardening. Other leisure activities include sports, handicrafts, table games (cards, chess, checkers, dominoes), and computer games. Men read newspapers and watch more television than women, who spend more leisure time with children. Other popular leisure activities for women include embroidery and sewing. Men often enjoy fishing and similar activities. Both men and women like to gather mushrooms and berries. Few people are members of special interest clubs and organizations only 7.8 of the population (Sydorenko, 2000). Many in Ukraine enjoy attending concerts and theatrical performances.

Emerging Foodborne Diseases

To microbial contamination during growth, harvest, and distribution. There has also been an increase in the demand for fresh-cut produce. The larger surface area makes this type of product more susceptible to contamination. Outbreaks have been associated with alfalfa sprouts, unpasteurized cider, fresh-squeezed orange juice, and frozen strawberries. Consumers have increased their spending on foods eaten away from home. Food service is a growing market. Improper cooking of items such as hamburgers, holding foods at improper temperatures, and cross-contamination are some of the causes of outbreaks. Extensive use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant Salmonella typhomurium (DT) 104. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has emerged as an infectious agent, mainly in the form of adult dairy cattle in the United Kingdom. There is evidence that this prion-derived disease was a result of feeding cattle meat and bonemeal derived from dead ruminants such as sheep and...

Fruits And Vegetables

By inducing detoxifying enzymes, or by blocking the carcinogen from reaching target tissue. Tumor promotion may be inhibited by retinol and beta-carotene (green yellow vegetables and fruits), tocopherol (nuts, wheat germ), vitamin C (vegetables, fruits), organosulfur compounds (garlic, onions), curcumin (tumeric, curry), and capsaicin (chili peppers). Covalent DNA binding is inhibited by phenyliso-thiocyanate (broccoli, cabbage), ellagic acid (fruits, nuts, berries), and flavonoids (fruits, vegetables). Biotransformation of potential carcinogens is inhibited by indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables). Thus, citrus fruit contains carotenoids, but it also contains flavonoids, glucarates, terpenes, and phenolic acids. Does protection require one or more of these plus carotenoids Studies along this line of reasoning are virtually unknown. Perhaps studies of combinations of protectants will yield an answer where studies of single substances haven't. Block et al. (49) compiled an...

Needs For Further Research And Development

Little information is available for the degree of care required when handling fruits and vegetables. The often repeated instruction to handle agricultural products like eggs is sometimes irrelevant. According to Liu,180 due to the different characteristics of fruits and vegetables, care in handling may vary considerably. Handling products more gently than eggs may apply to strawberries and raspberries but not to commodities that possess tough rinds. Extra care and precautions taken in handling are expensive, which may not be necessary for some commodities. Information on the level of compression, abrasion, and impact forces a commodity can withstand and practices that can cause damage is needed. Such information could be used to design appropriate packaging materials, handling equipment, and systems without unnecessarily adding costs, and for instruction of workers in the field and packinghouse for proper care in harvesting and handling without unnecessarily adding costs.

Citric Acid

Citric acid is the premier acid for the food and beverage industry because it offers a unique combination of desirable properties, ready availability in commercial quantities, and competitive pricing. It is estimated that citric acid worldwide accounts for more than 80 of general purpose acidulants used. It is found naturally in almost all living things, both plant and animal. It is the predominant acid, in substantial quantity, in citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, limes, etc), in berries (strawberries, raspberries, currants) and in pineapples. Citric acid is also the predominant acid in many vegetables, such as potatoes, tomatoes, asparagus, turnips, and peas, but in lower concentrations. The citrate ion occurs in all animal tissues and fluids. The total circulating citric acid in the serum of man is approximately 1 mg kg of body weight (2).

Cultivating Ferns

Ferns today are the garden's graceful greenery. They are flowerless plants, reproducing by spores (which incidentally do not cause hay fever) rather than seeds. (The asparagus fern with its little white flowers and red berries is actually a member of the lily family.) So we grow them for their elegant foliage of varying heights, shapes, and textures with an ornamental foliar structure that varies from the simple strap-shaped fronds of the Hart's tongue fern (Phyllitis scolopendrium) to the plumose froth of the finely divided British Polystichum setiferum cultivars. While newly planted ferns must be kept moist, established ferns are a low-maintenance delight and, despite their delicate appearance, are tough. Look for rhododendrons to curl and the grass to brown before your ferns will signal trouble. They bring as their gift to the garden the serenity of forest woodlands, peace in a shady nook, and the ability to give a unifying green calm to a colorful garden palette.


The human caliciviruses have a worldwide distribution being detected in every country they have been sought. 11 In a community-based study in Holland 20 of cases of gastroenteritis were due to noroviruses and 6 to sapoviruses. 15 Noroviruses were detected in all age groups whereas sapoviruses were found only in children with 19 of cases being found in those under 6 months. 15 Seroprevalence studies in developed countries indicate that antibodies to noroviruses are acquired gradually in childhood, and by adulthood 50 are seropositive.1-11-1 In contrast, in some developing countries norovirus seropositivity reaches 100 by 4 years of age. 11 Virtually all adults have antibody to sapoviruses and in Kenya most children are seropositive by 2 years of age. 11 Sapovirus infections appear to be endemic particularly in infants and, in temperate countries, predominate in the cooler winter months often before the rotavirus season. In contrast, noroviruses, while also able to cause sporadic...

Dietary Sources

Carotenoids cannot be synthesized by humans therefore they must be obtained from dietary sources. These are primarily highly pigmented red, orange, and yellow fruits and vegetables. The caro-tenoid lycopene is red however, not all red fruits and vegetables contain lycopene. For example, the red in strawberries, apples, and cherries is a result of their anthocyanin content whereas, tomatoes, watermelon, and pink grapefruit derive their red color from lycopene. The carotenoids fi-carotene, fi-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and viola-xanthin are yellow to orange, and phytoene and phytofluene are colorless. Green, leafy vegetables

Salt And Diet

The role of dietary manipulation to treat dropsy had been practiced for centuries. It had been used, with varying degrees of success, by nature healers, herbalists, and medical practitioners 1,8,35 . The favorable results of these dietary regimens had been attributed to its various constituents (asparagus, celery, berries), its limited fluid content (dry diets), or high potassium content (potato diet). Mention of an association between salt intake and fluid retention was made by Caelius Aurelianus in the 5th century C.E., who noted that drinking large quantities of water, particularly salt fluid, could cause dropsy. Stephen Hales (1677-1761), famous for being the first to estimate blood pressure in a horse, produced dropsy by injecting water into the vein of his experimental animals 20 . These observations notwithstanding, the role of dietary manipulation in the management of dropsy remained equivocal and poorly defined.

Careful Handling

Care should be exercised in handling fresh produce. Staff should be trained on the proper techniques of harvesting, in placing the produce in the container, as well as in the loading and unloading of containers for transport and storage. Loading aids such as trolleys, roller conveyors, pallet, or forklift trucks should be used to reduce handling of individual packages. Handling bananas by the bunch should be avoided as this predisposes the fruits to mechanical injury. Likewise, handling of dehanded bananas in sacks or placement of these fruits directly in the truck or ship's container should be avoided. Bananas are dehanded and packed in boxes for transport. However, for local markets, locally available containers can be used with adequate lining materials, such as bamboo baskets lined with newspaper. During the manual harvesting of fruits and vegetables such as citrus and mangos, harvesting aids like clippers, shears, or picking poles with nets and cutting knives are employed to...

Intermittent Warming

Interruption of cold storage with warm periods has been shown to be beneficial in extending the storage life of apples, citrus, cranberries, cucumbers, nectarines, and many other fruits by minimizing chilling injury.113 Wang and Baker129 found that intermittent warming increased the proportion of unsaturated polar lipids in peaches, cucumbers, and sweet peppers, and lessened the deterioration of these products at low temperatures. Peaches, when warmed intermittently, were found to have reduced incidence of wooliness171 due to the production of adequate levels of pectolytic enzymes, pectinesterase, and polygalacturonase. Tomatoes have also responded favorably to rewarming at 18 C as shown by the recovery of ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria and plastids.131


The relative concentrations of volatile compounds (non-aromatic and aromatic) within a fruit or vegetable increase during maturation and ripening. The electrical conductivity of semiconductor gas detectors, based on different polymers and metal oxides, decreases on exposure to volatiles. A battery of several detectors can produce a profile that may indicate maturity or presence of some disorders. The electronic sniffer concept (40,41) has been tested on apples, blueberries, melons, and strawberries. Further research is needed to explore the selection of semiconductors and to relate the profiles to quality categories (42).

Prevention Of Losses

Proper temperature control is the most important tool in preventing postharvest losses. As the temperature is lowered, rates of respiration and transpiration decrease. The growth of microorganisms is also slowed by lower temperatures. For most fresh products, storage at temperatures as close to freezing as possible will extend shelf life. Freezing should be avoided as inadvertent freezing and thawing of fresh items leads to breakage of cell membranes and loss of desirable texture. Quick cooling after harvest to remove field heat is imperative in items like strawberries and green vegetables that respire rapidly and perish quickly. Hydrocooling and icing are used for products that can withstand water, but water is an excellent vehicle for spreading microorganisms. Forced-air cooling is another effective method, while vacuum-cooling is used for high-value items with a large surface area like lettuce. Slower cooling such as room cooling is permissible for products being stored for a...


Foods have to be suitably prepared (cleaned, peeled, trimmed, sliced, diced, and blanched or sulfited where necessary) and properly frozen before drying. To improve permeability, holes are punched in the skins of some foods, such as blueberries and peas. Meat is trimmed to remove fat (which interferes with drying) and, when sliced, is cut across the grain to maximize heat transfer and ease of vapor escape during drying. Liquid feeds may be evapora-tively concentrated or freeze concentrated to reduce water removal loads in drying.


Blueberries belong to the family Ericaceae, subfamily Vac-ciniaceae. True blueberries belong to the ancient genus Vaccinium, subgenus Cyanococcus. Blueberries are divided into two major groups, lowbush and highbush. The low-bush type generally grows wild over large areas and is the source of a large quantity of fruit on the commercial market. Northern lowbush blueberries consist of several species V. myrtilloides, V. angustifolium, V. lamarkii, and V. vacillans. V. angustifolium is gradually replacing the others in areas where rotational burning is used for weed control and pruning. The northern highbush blueberry is V. corymbosum, and the southern type is V. australe. The rabbit-eye blueberry is V. ashei, so named because when the fruit begins to ripen the pink color resembles a rabbit's eye. It is grown mainly in the southern states. Blueberry production in the United States was about 85,000 tons in 1993 and is increasing rapidly. Production increased 50 between 1992 and 1993 alone....


Native North American plant introduced into Europe in the late eighteenth century. It produces clusters of small stone berries that, particularly in Poland, have been used to make jams, jellies, juices, and wines. Chokeberry juice is very astringent and has been used to improve the taste of apple products. Its astringency is not unlike that of cranberries, and it may find a place as an adjunct for flavoring products that now use cranberries. Chokeberries have also been suggested as a source of anthocyanin pigments for applications as natural colorants (6). Chokeberries are a very minor crop in the United States.

Chromosome Number

Cultivars of wheat exist with diploid numbers of chromosomes equaling 14, 28, or 42 (multiples of the haploid number, which is 7). Polyploids exist for many cultivated plants, including potatoes, strawberries, and cotton, as well as in wild plants such as dandelions. Polyploidy has led to striking numbers, and the known record is held by the fern Ophioglossum reticulatum, which has approximately 630 pairs.


The determination of anthocyanin patterns of red fruits to determine the authenticity of natural colourings was standardized in an ISO-gradient technique. Retention times are expressed using the Reversed Retention Index. Garcia-Viguerra C. et al,33 analyzed the anthocyanin content of different berries


The cultivated cranberry (VI macrocarpon, of the family Ericaceae) is native to peat bogs in many northern states from Massachusetts to Minnesota and some Canadian provinces. The wild cranberry, V. oxycoccus, is native to the Pacific states but not the eastern states. It is not grown commercially because of its small berry size. Another species, V. vitis-idea, lingonberry, is grown on the upland areas of Scandinavia and Alaska. It is sometimes called mountain cranberry, European cranberry, partridgeberry, or fox-berry and is used locally for jams and jellies. These are not to be confused with the highbush cranberry, Viburnum tri-lobum or V. opulus it is primarily grown as an ornamental shrub, but the berries are sometimes used for jellies. North America produces nearly all of the world crop of cranberries, and production in 1998 was estimated at 300,000 tons, of which 95 was processed (M.S. Starr, personal communication, 1999). Cranberries are one of the three fruits native to North...


Blackberries, of the family Rosaceae, belong to the genus Rubus, which, particularly its subgenus Eubatis, is highly genetically heterogeneous. A series of species and subspecies makes it difficult to identify the heritage of many of the current cultivars. The cultivated blackberries of North America are divided into five groups (J) the erect or nearly erect types of the eastern United States, (2) the eastern trailing types, (3) the southeastern trailing types found along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, (4) the trailing types of the Pacific Coast, and (5) the semitrailing types of the Pacific Coast. Trailing blackberries are also called dewberries, running blackberries, or ground blackberries. A number of thornless blackberry cultivars have been introduced and are sometimes called boysenberries, loganberries, or youngberries. All blackberries consist of a collection of drupelets that are partly fleshy and partly hard (the seed). Blackberries can be distinguished from raspberries because...

Stone fruits

The extracts of two different varieties of sweet cherries were superior to various berry extracts (blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries) in inhibiting lipid oxidation in an in vitro phosphatidyl lecitine model system in contrast, the relative antioxidant activities of the same cherry extracts on human LDL oxidation in vitro were lower than that of blackberries and raspberries, but higher than that of blueberries and strawberries when evaluated at the same micromolar concentration of 10 M total phenols.29 The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts of berries against lecithin liposomes were significantly positively correlated to the content of hydroxycinnamates, but the amount of flavanols correlated to the antioxidant potency of extracts of berries in neither the in vitro LDL oxidation systems nor in the lecithin liposome assay.29 Extracts of sweet cherries were found to be the best among a large number of other fruits in inhibiting oxidation in vitro of a pool...

Benzoic Acid

Benzoic acid also has widespread use in the food industry. It occurs naturally in raspberries, cranberries, plums prunes, cinnamon, and cloves (Doors 1993). As an antifungal food additives, the water-soluble sodium and potassium salts and the fat-soluble acid form are suitable for food and beverages with a pH below 4.5. Benzoates have little effect at neutral pH values. They are not as effective as sorbates at pH 5.0 (Table 2), but their effectiveness increases at lower pH values.

Jugged Hare

You might have heard of this classic English dish. The main ingredient is a hare that has been soaked in a marinade of red wine and juniper berries for a day or more. The marinated meat is browned and then made into a casserole that includes vegetables, seasonings, and stock for baking. Juices from this mixture are poured off after cooking and combined with cream, blood from the hare that was set aside at butchering, and the hare's liver, which has been pulverized. The strained sauce is served over the meat and vegetables. Because the dish was historically served in a crock or jug, the dish has been referred to as jugged hare.

Plant Composition

Two main carbohydrates occur in Vaccinium berries, glucose (1-3 ) and fructose (0.5-2 ) (1,2). In cranberry, glucose occurs in a much higher amount than fructose this is unusual because usually fructose and glucose occur in equal amounts. and epicatechin. They are called procyanidins or proanthocyanidins because they yield anthocyanidins after acid degradation. They occur as copolymer of all the possible combinations of the stereoisomer form of the monomeric flavans and are distinguished by an alphabetic letter (ie, B1( B2, B3, and B4 for the four-dimeric forms of d,l -catechin and d,l -epicatechin). With three monomers, the number of possible trimers would be 27, etc. A typical pro-cyanidin, procyanidin B1 that occurs in Vaccinium berries is represented in Figure 1. Anthocyanins. The anthocyanins (5,6,9) are the pigments responsible for the red to dark blue color of the Vaccinium berries and their juice. Anthocyanins are flavonoids (a C6-C3-C6 molecule) and occur in glycosidic form....

What Is Sucrose

A role in human diets ever since primates began evolving on a diet of fruit and berries in the tropical forests of Africa 50 million years ago. Sucrose is chemically classified as a carbohydrate and a simple sugar, specifically a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose (Figure 1). Its proper scientific name is The natural sweetness of fruit and honey comes from mixtures of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The mild sweetness of milk comes from another disaccharide, lactose, composed of glucose and galactose.

Mobile Health Care

Many executives today have converted to a mobile platform, making schedules, writing memos, engaging in complex analysis, listening to music, creating alerts and alarms, and e-mailing via BlackBerries, Palm Pilots, iPods, advanced pagers, cell phones, and other handheld devices. These handhelds provide a very convenient platform for generating future-oriented applications in health care. For example, both Pocket PCs and Palm Pilots are currently being tested and used for e-prescribing, capturing charges (e-billing), on-line research, e-book resources and references, e-patient education, e-clinical tools, and real-time retrieval of daily scheduling information.

Sulfited Fruits

In bulk until they could be processed into jams and jellies. Sulfur dioxide served this role very well. Fruit could be cleaned, placed into barrels, and covered with a solution of sulfur dioxide in water, or a solution of sodium bisulfite or one of its salts. After mixing in the barrels, the fruit could be kept for years. The fruit could be removed from the barrels, placed in a kettle, and boiled to remove the sulfur dioxide. After addition of pectin and sugars and boiling to produce the required moisture level, the product could be filled into consumer-sized packages. Strawberries were an important sulfited product because of the large market for strawberry jam but the sulfite treatment bleached out the red color. The chemical reaction was a simple addition reaction between the red anthocyanin pigment and the sulfite ion that was easily broken such that the boiling process reduced the sulfite content and restored the desirable red color.


Coffee is one of the most commercially important grains in the food industry. Coffee comprises a number of different forms, ranging from coffee cherries (berries) green coffee, which is trade beans that are removed by one of a number of different process sequences after harvesting roast coffee, which is the green coffee beans that are roasted by a heat process, either domestically or commercially, and which may also be pre-ground and the coffee beverage, which is the form in which it is actually consumed. It should also be understood that while coffee cherries beans exist in a number of different botanical species within the corresponding genus, only two are used commercially, Coffea arabica and C. canephora (robusta in the trade), and can reflect different characteristics in storage behavior and in their subsequent coffee products.74


The procyanidins in foods occur in soluble free forms and in insoluble combinations with polysaccharides. Such adducts are the result of covalent bonds formed during the biosynthesis of the procyanidins. Dimeric procyanidins, barely within the molecular size range of tannins, and tri-meric forms are widely distributed in berries and in the leaves of many fruit plants at levels of 50 to 500 mg 100 g fresh weight (6). They are often accompanied by dimeric prodelphinidins, which predominate in strawberries. Fruits and grains are also rich in higher oligomers of catechins. As molecular size increases, the solubility of the proanthocyanidins decreases. Varieties of sorghum, one of the most widely consumed of all grains by humans, differ in tannin levels by a factor of 100. Some fodder varieties contain as much as 6 tannin (7).

Postharvest storage

The dipping of whole fruits in aqueous preservative solutions, which is improved by vacuum application, has been used to prolong the post-harvest conservation of many products apples (Scott and Wills, 1977, 1979 Lidster et al., 1986) lemons (Valero et al., 1998a, 1998b), avocados (Wills and Sirivatanapa, 1988), mangoes (Tirmazi and Wills, 1981), tomatoes (Wills and Tirmazi, 1979), strawberries (Ponappa et al., 1993). The compounds used in the impregnation solution are usually calcium salts (mostly calcium chloride) and many plant hormones (polyamines). Vacuum infusion seems to be used as an alternative to the pressure infiltration process (Poovaiah, 1986 Wang et al., 1993). The benefit of calcium application is generally related to the ability of the cation to interact with cell membranes and walls, as well as to its regulatory role at the metabolic level. According to Poovaiah (1986), the beneficial effects of calcium enrichment of whole fruit after harvest have multiple causes....


Shrubs and berries containing caffeine and its analogs were described as diuretics in several herbals of the past. What prompted Koshlakoff to use caffeine is uncertain. In the early 1920s, Alfred N. Richards (1876-1966), then professor of pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania, was frustrated by his


Banana Pintadas Tecido

Until recently, the availability of a fruit during the year depended on its growing season. For example, strawberries appeared in April and May, melons in August and September, whereas some fruits, such as apples and bananas, were available year-round. Today, reliable transportation brings fruit of every type to our markets year-round, although some imported fruits may be more costly during the winter than their domestic counterparts are in the summer when they

Sorbic Acid Sorbates

Sorbic acid occurs naturally in the berries of the mountain ash tree (rowanberry) (24). As with other organic acids, the antimicrobial activity of sorbic acid is greatest when the compound is in the undissociated state. With a pKa of 4.75, activity is greatest at a pH less than 6.0 to 6.5.


Spices, cheese starter cultures, shrimp, fruits for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and vegetables, meats, fish, and fruits for military, camping, and space-travel rations are or have been freeze-dried commercially. Freeze drying is used in making highly compressed, dry, military rations that expand to near-normal size and shape when rehy-drated. Patents (1) or other technical literature describe the freeze drying of eggs, dairy products, powdered fish and shellfish, gelatin, bacon, cooked rice, emulsified peanut butter, soluble tea, puddings, jellies, pie fillings, salads coated with dressings, berries, avocado powder, potato-based products, fruit juices, and yeasts. Laboratory-scale freeze drying is used to preserve food samples.


Darmadji and Izumimoto (1994) showed that 1 chitosan was necessary for reduction of only 1-2 logs of Pseudomonas, staphylococci, and total bacteria count in minced beef patties and lower concentrations (0.2 and 0.5 ) had no effect on the microflora. In contrast, fresh strawberries and bell peppers dipped in acidic chitosan solutions and inoculated with B. cinerea or R. stolonifer were reported to have a shelf life equivalent to that of fruit treated with conventional fungicide (El-Ghaouth et al, 1991 El-Ghaouth, 1997). Roller and Covill (1999) reported that 0.1 to 5 g l of chitosan glutamate inhibited growth of eight yeast species in apple juice at 250C. The most sensitive strain was Z. bailii, which was completely inactivated by chitosan glutamate at 0.1 g l. For S. cerevisiae, the minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.4 g l and no resumption of growth was observed after 32 days.

Components Of Food

Sciously substituted for another, while retaining the same underlying meaning. Eating chocolate or strawberries and whipped cream may be viewed in a sinful way as a reward of badness for good behavior (as a dessert after having eaten the meal of brussels sprouts), or as a violation of an unwritten moral code that elevates these foods into a nonessential, potentially dangerous, risky (ie, exciting) food, and hence strongly desired. Thus, eating these foods is perceived on some level as a violation of social morals and revolt against hedonic repression, which may be manifested by sexual arousal. Another nonfood example of this repressed hedonic affective overflow is the Las Vegas effect of gambling, being perceived as a naughty thing to do, and hence becoming imbued with components of sexual arousal. Likewise, sinful foods may come to be endowed with other perceived sinful qualities, and this would include sexual arousal.

Common Spices

All Masala Ingested

Also known as Jamaican pepper, allspice is ground from the hard brown berries of the allspice tree, which grows in Mexico and throughout the Caribbean. Allspice is so named because it imparts the flavor of nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon. An excellent addition to marinades, allspice is also used to flavor cured and jerked meat, desserts, and sauces. It is also an ingredient in gingerbread. The finest allspice trees are thought to be grown in Jamaica. Use the spice sparingly to avoid overpowering other ingredients. The hard purple berries of an evergreen bush, juniper berries have a turpentine-like flavor. Juniper berries add a spicy, pungent flavor to game, red cabbage, or meat stews. Juniper berries give gin its flavor. Berries should be crushed before they are used. Green pepper Typically sold canned, green peppercorns are green pepper berries that are harvested before they mature. They are mild in flavor. Black pepper These peppercorns are pepper berries harvested just as they are...


More recently, there has been an interest in the use of 02 at high concentrations as MAP gas. High 02 concentrations (70-100 ) have also been shown to inhibit Y. enterocolitica, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae (Gonsales Roncero and Day, 1998 Amanatidou, 2001). High 02 MAP has been found to be particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic discolouration, preventing anaerobic fermentation reactions and inhibiting microbial growth (Day, 2003). It has been used to extend the shelf life of fresh produce such as meat, lettuce, strawberries, raspberries, grapes and oranges.


An increase in LOX activity is a common feature in senescent plant tissues. The catalysis of cis, cis-1,4-pentadiene structures is related to the critical role of LOX in plant tissue senescence. Treatments believed to delay the onset of senescence, such as the addition of cytokinins or antioxidants reduce the level of endogenous LOX relative to untreated controls (Siedow, 1991). Inhibition of LOX delays ripening and softening in peaches (Wu et al., 1999) and kiwifruit (Chen et al., 1999). LOX activity has also been correlated with plant tissue development (McLeod and Poole, 1994 Tanteeratarm et al., 1989), as well as pathogen (Avdiushko et al., 1993a Gardner, 1991 Ohta et al., 1990) and insect (Avdiushko et al., 1997 Duffey and Stout, 1996 Thaler et al., 1996) resistance mechanisms. The protective mechanism implicated is the further catabolism of oxidation products to jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, which are members of an intracellular signal transduction chain transferring...

Food Irradiation

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved irradiation for use on wheat and wheat flour in 1963, and later approved its use on white potatoes, spices, pork, some fresh produce (onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, and strawberries), and poultry (Table 18.1). In 1997, in response to several foodborne illness outbreaks and increasing public concern over the safety of food supply, irradiation was approved for use on poultry products. In 1999 and 2000, irradiation was approved to curb pathogens in raw meats, including ground beef, steaks, and pork chops. Irradiation has also been used for more than 30 years to preserve some meals eaten by astronauts during long-term space missions. Some consumer groups have raised concerns that irradiation might cause the formation of toxic compounds in food. Because of these and other concerns, only a limited amount of irradiated food has been sold in the U.S. Irradiation gained notoriety in the winter of 2001, when the process was employed by the...