Challenges For Food Security In This Century And Beyond

Today we face many critical issues in agriculture (a) an exponentially growing human population (b) recurrent famine (c) the destruction of natural landscapes such as tropical rain forests to extend agriculture to previously unused lands (d) the exodus of human civilization from rural communities to cities (e) the destruction of environmental quality resulting from exposure to agrochemicals, erosion of soils and salinization of soils as well as exhaustion and contamination of fresh water...

Fumonisins

Structure Fumonisins

Figure 3 Chemical structures of different classes of fumonisins. The R residue is 3-hydroxypidinium in fumonisins, B1-B3 while the others are tricarballyl esters. Figure 3 Chemical structures of different classes of fumonisins. The R residue is 3-hydroxypidinium in fumonisins, B1-B3 while the others are tricarballyl esters. Fumonisins (Fm) are a group of toxic metabolites produced primarily by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and other related species readily colonize corn all over the world...

Fruitbased Alcoholic Beverages

A variety of alcoholic beverages is made from fruits. The quality of fruit wine depends on the fruit variety, maturity of fruit, yeast strains, other vinification practices, and the method of preservation. (a) Mango Wine Mangoes are first pulped, Pectinase is then added followed by fermentation with S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (Joshi et al. 1999) (b) Jambal wine Crushed Jambal fruits are diluted and the must ameliorated with cane sugar. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, sulfur dioxide, and...

Integrating Bcpd With Other Alternatives

Although BCPD can provide levels of control that are commercially acceptable, the performance margin of biocontrol is generally lower than for fungicides. For example, higher concentrations of the antagonist must be used to achieve the same control of decay as fruit mature. To increase the performance margin of biocontrol, attempts have been made to integrate biocontrol with other alternatives to synthetic fungicide methods that were developed mainly during the past two decades (Conway and Sams...

Tuber Cropbased Fermented Food

Tuber crops include cassava, yams, taros, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. With the exception of cassava, tuber crops keep well and hence not many fermented products are prepared. (a) African Fufu This is made from cassava roots and eaten with soup, sauce, or stew. Peeled cassava roots are washed, cut up, soaked in water to release HCN into water, disintegrated, and sieved. The filtered starchy particles are allowed to settle and collected, rolled into balls, cooked, and formed into a paste called...

Medium Chain Fatty Acids

Generally, fatty acids are most effective as inhibitors of grampositive bacteria and yeasts, although some fatty acids exhibit antimycotic activity. Chipley et al. (1981) observed that fatty acid derivatives reduced growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus spp. Polyhydric alcohol fatty acid esters have great potential for use as emulsifiers in food formulations (Razani-Rohani and Griffiths 1994). They also possess antifungal properties and, therefore, may exert a preservative effect in...

Current Food Supply And Demand

With the geometric doubling of population and marginally arithmetic doubling of food production, the ideas of Robert Malthus proposed in 1798 remains as controversial as when they first appeared. Malthus's hypothesis remained an important unanswered question for years after the bicentennial of Malthus's paper. Brown et al. (1999) point out what additional issues complicate the simplistic Malthusian thought are additional constraints of public health and global economy. One major intervening...

Alcoholic Food And Beverages Mostly Cerealbased

These are primitive beers and wines prepared by villages in the developing countries. They are cloudy slurries containing residues and microorganisms including yeasts, and hence are a source of B vitamins, proteins, amino acids, and calories. (a) Ethiopian Tej This is a home-processed honey wine fermented by Saccharomyces species present in the environment that convert sugars to ethanol. To make Ethiopian tej, honey, water, and hop stems are fermented in a pot for about 1 week at high ambient...

Fermented Milk Products

The advantages include easy production, improved keeping quality, better digestibility and nutritive value, and therapeutic potential. Only the acid-tolerant bacteria can grow during milk fermentation. (a) Egyptian Kishk is a fermented milk-wheat mixture that is stored as dried balls. To prepare kishk, wheat grains are softened by boiling, air-dried, and then ground. Milk is added to the ground wheat to produce a paste that is rolled into balls. Spices may be added to the balls before they are...

Fermented Meat Products Sausages

The starter culture used in meat fermentation may have bacteria, the yeasts Deboryomyces hansanii and Candida famata and the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Yeasts encourage color development and improve aroma in sausages. Molds contribute to the characteristic aroma. During fermentation, the fall in pH due to glycolysis by lactic acid bacteria helps to preserve the fermented product and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, and the production of nitric oxide due to...

Cerealbased Fermented Food

Cereals including wheat and rice form the largest class of food. Bread is the most commonly found cereal-based fermented food. (a) Chinese Minchin This is made from wheat gluten and used as a solid condiment. The fungal species involved in fermentation include Aspergillus sp., Chadosporium sp., Fusarium syncephalastum, and Paecilomyces sp. (Padmaja and George 1999) (b) Chinese red rice (Anka) This is produced by fermenting rice with various strains of M. purpureus Went. It is used to color...

Fingerprinting Methods

For the purposes of this chapter DNA fingerprinting methods will be limited to those that have been used with plant Small subunit 5.83 Large subunit Table 1 Features of commonly used molecular markers Simple repetitive PCR sequences micro- and mini-satellite probes and primers AFLPs Major structural functional protein genes Individuals, subspecific groups Individuals, subspecific groups Individuals, subspecific groups, some closely related species Subspecific groups, closely related species...

Molecular Targets Used For The Detection Of Fungi

The choice of molecular target depends on the aim wished to be achieved. For panfungal detection, usually the conserved regions the rRNA gene cluster are targeted. Other targets could also be used, including genes of the ergosterol biosynthesis (Morace et al. 1997), translation elongation factor genes (Vaitilingom et al. 1998), and the chitin synthase gene (Jordan 1994). For specific detection of a single genus or species, more variable regions of the genome, e.g., spacer regions of the rRNA...

Saprotrophs of Attached and Fallen Wood and Litter

Saprotrophic fungi are the principle decomposers of nonliving plant and animal detritus in the natural environment, thus recycling chemical elements back to the environment in a form other organisms may utilize. Filamentous fungi usually dominate wood and litter decomposing communities, but under particular ecological circumstances, for e.g., for wood in tropical ecosystems termites may predominate, and under waterlogged conditions bacteria may prevail (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Other wood and...

In Situ Molecular Tools For Biocontrol Strains

Even if the species identity is not a concern, the ability to recognize the strain which was introduced into the field is of interest. Appropriate molecular tools have thus recently been introduced for identifying Trichoderma strains in the environment, and to follow their fate after introduction into the soil in situ. To monitor the behavior of a given strain in the soil, Bae and Knudsen (2001) cotransformed T. harzianum with genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-glucuronidase...

Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing

Yeasts and filamentous fungi were traditionally employed in the production of alcoholic beverages and fermented foods over centuries (Hui and Khachatourians 1995 Rajak 2000). Yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces) have been used worldwide for brewing and baking for thousands of years. Likewise, filamentous fungi have been traditionally used for preparing mold-ripened cheeses (mainly Penicillium spp.) in Europe and soybean-based fermented foods (mainly Aspergillus spp.) in the Orient. On the other hand,...

Fungal and Plant Species Richness

While plants vary in their dependence on mycorrhizal fungi, the fungi are generally obligate mutualists (Lewis 1973). Interestingly, patterns of mycorrhizal diversity do not always follow those of plant diversity (Allen et al. 1995). There are approximately 150 species of AM fungi (Morton et al. 1995 Schenck and Perez 1990) forming associations with about 70 of plants worldwide. Virtually any AM fungus can associate with any vascular plant capable of forming an AM (Allen et al. 1995). Despite...

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Mushrooms are highly perishable and have short shelf life ranging from few hours to days depending upon the species and the storage environment. Weight loss, blackening, veil-opening, and microbial spoilage are the common undesirable postharvest changes besides many physiological and biochemical changes (Bano et al. 1997 Rai and Saxena 1989a Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms require utmost postharvest care like proper handling, packaging, precooling, cool-chain transport, and storage till...

Complex Flavors

Sharpell (1985) has discussed in detail some complex mixtures of flavors and fragrances, which are associated with natural products. Microbial processes appear to be very promising for the production of complex dairy and mushroom like flavors. Screening of different organisms made it possible Table 2 Nonterpene fungal flavoring constituents Table 2 Nonterpene fungal flavoring constituents Table 3 De novo synthesis of fungal flavoring constituents T. viride G. candidum F. poae A. niger A. oryzae...

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

Woodland ecosystems are a major planetary resource, involving about a third of the land surface. Forests and woodlands provide a habitat for biological diversity. They contribute substantially to the global carbon cycle and are the natural venue for many derived pharmaceutical, practical, and edible products. Woodlands are also an environment for indigenous peoples, and provide much aesthetic and amenity value. Alarmingly, our forests are being lost at a rate of around 14.6 X106 ha yr due to...

Mushroom Flavors

Sugihara and Humfeld (1954) who found that mushroom flavor could be produced by Lepiota rhacodes when grown under submerged conditions. Gilbert (1960) Litchfield et al. (1963) and Le Duy et al. (1974) studied the production of mushroom flavor by Morchella crassipes. Lentinus edodes produced 1-octen-3-ol, 5'-amp, an intense mushroom flavor when the medium was supplemented with ethanol (Sugimori et al. 1971). Hamid et al. (1972) investigated the production of mushroom flavor from Trichoderma...

Genetics

In addition to simple Mendelian genetics (Bonde et al. 1988 Burdon et al. 1986 Hellman and Christ 1991 Shattock et al. 1986a Spielman et al. 1990) and linkage analysis (May and Royse 1982b), isozymes can be used to distinguish hybrid from nonhybrid progeny in both intra- (May and Royse 1982a Shattock et al. 1986b) and inter-specific crosses (Goodwin and Fry 1994), and to infer the ploidy level of vegetative hyphae (Goodwin et al. 1994 Shattock et al. 1986b). Dimeric enzymes are ideal for this...

Fungal Diversity Environmental Change And Conservation

Biodiversity is generally considered to be fundamental to ecosystem functioning and stability. Thus, if this tenet is extrapolated to fungi in forest ecosystems, fungal biodiversity is critical to global geochemical cycles. A well-cited global estimate for fungal biodiversity is in the range of 1.5-M species (Hawksworth 1991 2001). However, at a local level, appropriate monitoring of fungal diversity can identify ecological and climatic trends, provide a database for spatio-temporally...

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

The AMF interact with functionally diverse bacteria such as diazotrophs, biological control agents, and other common rhizosphere inhabitants (Nemec 1994) that often result in significant alterations to plant growth, yield, and nutrition. Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria may have detrimental (Filion et al. 1999 Shalaby and Hanna 1998 2001) or beneficial effects (Edwards et al. 1998 Gryndler and Hrselova 1998 Li et al. 1997 Ravnskov and Jakobsen 1999), or have no effect at all...

Yeast Biodiversity In Wineries 21 Yeast Species Diversity During Vinification

All the investigations carried out on grape surfaces by direct isolation (without enrichment) have constantly shown that Hanseniaspora uvarum (anamorph Kloeckera apiculata) is always the predominant inhabitant of the grape surface (75 of the cells) this numerical supremacy may explain its initial domination in natural fermentations. Metschnikowia pulcherrima is often present, followed by a group of film-forming yeasts (Pichia anomala) or pigmented species (Rhodotorula sp.). In a general study...

Host Nutritional Effects

Mycorrhizal plants are generally able to tolerate pathogens and compensate for root damage and photosynthate drain by pathogens (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea 1992 Declerck et al. 2002), because AMF enhance host nutrition and overall plant growth. For example, Declerck et al. (2002) found that G. proliferum and a Glomus sp. isolate not only stimulated growth and increased shoot P content of banana in the presence and absence of the root rot fungus Cylindrocladium spathiphylli, but also reduced root...

Occurrence and Toxicology

Investigation of the association of human esophageal cancer and the consumption of Fusarium verticillioides (formerly called F. moniliforme) infested maize by South African Researchers suggested that fumonisins were a new group of mycotoxins (Bezuidenhout et al. 1988 Gelderblom et al. 1988). Even though the fumonisins were originally identified from F. verticillioides, these toxins have been reported in cultures of F. anthophilum, F. dlamini, F. napiforme, F. oxysporum, and F. proliferatum...

Avoiding Human Exposure

4.2.1 Role of Rigorous Monitoring Programs While it is impossible to remove mycotoxins completely from foods and feeds, effective measures to decrease the risk of exposure depend on a rigorous program of monitoring mycotoxins in foods and feeds. Consequently, governments in many countries have set limits for permissible levels or tolerance levels for a number of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. Over 50 countries of the world have developed such guidelines (Van Egmond 2002). For example, levels...

References

The presence and phytotoxicity of fumonisins and AAL-toxin in Alternaria alternata. Toxicon 34 133-136. Bacon CW, Yates IE, Hinton DM, and Meredith F (2001). Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize. Environ Health Perspect 109(2) 325-332. Baudrimont I, Ahouandjivo R, and Creppy EE (1994). Prevention of lipid peroxidation induced by ochratoxin A in Vero cells in culture by several agents. Chem-Biol Interact 104 29-40. Bhatnagar D, Lillehoj EB, Arora DK...

Recent Success in Fungicide Development from Antifungal Leads

Images Biofungicides

Since strobilurin A and oudemansin A were found to be fungicidal metabolites in Basidiomycete fungi Strobilurus tenacellus (Anke et al. 1977) and Oudemansiella mucida (Musilek et al. 1969), respectively, a number of structurally related compounds were reported to have fungicidal activity. Each member of this family incorporates a methyl b-methoxyacrylate group linked at its a-position to a phenylpentadienyl unit, and all the compounds except strobilurin A carry either one or two additional...

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular...

Alkanes And Alkenes

Many soil fungi, such as Aspergillus terreus, Pseudal-lescheria boydii, and the yeast Candida tropicalis, degrade the mixtures of n-alkanes found in crude oil (April et al. 1998 2000 Colombo et al. 1996 Nwachukwu 2000), often with the help of biosurfactants (Lindley 1992). Candida utilis has also been used for the bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic ecosystems (Nwachukwu 2000). Methane, the major component of natural gas, is produced by a variety of methanogenic Archaea. It is utilized for...

Enzyme Activities of Non Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts

With respect to the role played by these non-Saccharomyces species in wine quality, they are known to have the capability to improve the wine aroma (Charoenchai et al. 1997 Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 1998). The available aromas in the grape impart and define the characteristics and the final quality of wine. Terpenic compounds account for most of these aromas. Grape processing liberates small quantities of aromatic terpenols however, odorless precursors in the grape present a large, untapped reserve...

Filamentous Fungi

Compared to yeasts, filamentous fungi have been used less frequently for bioconversion of distillery wastes. The reasons might be that they are slower growing and more susceptible to infection. However, filamentous fungi have some advantages as they produce a series of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and are therefore able to exploit complex carbohydrates without prior hydrolysis this property enables them to grow in starch and cellulose substrates. The second advantage is in their filamentous...

Fungi As Plant Growth Promoter 21 Pgpf

Many fungi isolated from soil can inhibit plant growth. Generally, the inhibition of plant growth is mostly caused by plant-pathogenic fungi, however, some fungi that are not normally considered as pathogens can also inhibit plant growth. These fungi have been termed indefinite pathogenic fungi, and in one study, isolates of Eupenicillium javanicum, Penicillium janthinellim, P. citreonigrum, and P. citrinum obtained from roots of zinnia plant caused a 23-57 inhibition of the growth of the same...

Button Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., popularly known as the white button mushroom, has the widest acceptability and still accounts for more than 30 of total production of all mushrooms. Limited quantities of A. bitorquis, a high temperature species, are also produced in some countries. Its cultivation technology has developed over the years from a primitive cave culture in France in the 16th century to a hightech industry in America and Europe now. Still in many parts of the world, especially in...

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients...

Role Of Mrgs In Biocontrol And Strain Improvement

A major challenge for researchers investigating the mechanisms involved in the parasitic activity of Trichoderma has been to establish the role of cell-wall degrading enzymes in the process. In fact, we have proposed to call all genes encoding cell-wall degrading enzymes MRGs, because of their apparent relation to the process, until their role is fully determined. Intensive efforts using genetic engineering are currently being directed at this goal. In 1997, Flores and coworkers generated...

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations of the Host

Following AMF colonization, host root tissue P levels are typically enhanced which modify the phospholipid composition and therefore the root membrane permeability resulting in a reduction in the leakage of net amount of sugars, carboxylic acids, and aminoacids into the rhizosphere (Graham and Menge 1982 Ratnayake et al. 1978 Schwab et al. 1983). These alterations arrest the chemotactic effect of pathogens to plant roots and discourage pathogen entry. Prior inoculation of maize plants with G....

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to...

World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six...

Methods for Yeast Characterization

Methods by which strains of the same species can be differentiated have been shown to be very important for yeast strain characterization. In winemaking, several studies have analyzed the diverse microflora of grapes and musts and several interesting methods have been developed (Figure 2). PCR amplification using intron splicing site (consensus sequences that flank introns) displays polymorphism mainly at the within-species level (de Barros Lopes de et al. 1996) PCR amplification of delta...

Production Technology Of Edible Fungi

Production of edible fungi or mushrooms involves many steps, mainly the following (a) Raising and maintenance of mushroom culture, (b) Seed or spawn preparation, (c) Substrate preparation, (d) Growing or cropping, and (e) Postharvest handling While step (a) and (b) are more or less common and similar for most of the mushrooms, it is the substrate preparation, crop raising, and post harvest technology which vary with the type of mushroom. In this article after brief treatment of the step (a) and...

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Perhaps the most important deterrent to the commercial use of mycorrhizal fungi globally is the lack of large-scale multi-location field trials in a variety of agricultural soils and an absence of general lack of awareness among the users. Without such an activity it will be difficult to establish a market for mycorrhizal inoculum. Without a market there is little incentive for a commercial setup to initiate the production of inoculum on a commercial scale, and only large-scale production will...

Genetic Engineering Strategies to Enhance Host Resistance to Mycotoxin Contamination

Plant breeding for resistance is practical when a large germplasm pool exists with differential resistance in the crop, such as exists in corn. However, genetic engineering for resistance may be essential for crops such as cotton which seems to have little resistance to aflatoxin contamination of its seed (Cotty 1989). Extensive research has focused upon identifying genes encoding antifungal proteins effective against mycotoxigenic fungi. Bacterial chloroperoxidase (CPO) (Wolffram et al. 1988)...

Products And Effects

Bioconversion of distillery waste by means of fungi brings a double benefit the effluent is substantially purified and, in addition, it is possible to obtain useful products, such as protein-rich fungal biomass, ethanol, enzymes, etc. Results of bioconversion by yeasts are given in Table 2. In most experiments C. utilis was used as the chosen microorganism, especially for cane molasses stillage (Friedrich et al. 1992). The quantity of cells produced varied significantly with the concentration...

Mycoprotein as Food

The microbial food product of the early 21st century does not base its market success solely on account of its protein content, as vegetable proteins sources are abundant in the market at competitive prices. The resemblance in texture to that of currently appreciated foods, and a bland taste and light color, which renders it susceptible to the addition of flavoring and coloring agents, are also a prerequisite. The filamentous nature of the organism, a feature, which was considered as a...

Other Selected Mycotoxins

In addition to the mycotoxins discussed above, a number of other mycotoxins occur naturally. The impacts of some of these mycotoxins on human and animal health are discussed in the following sections. 3.5.1 Other Mycotoxins Produced by Aspergillus Sterigmatocystin ST is a naturally occurring hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by fungi in the genera Aspergillus, Bipolaris, and Chaetomium as well as P. luteum see Bhatnagar et al. 2002 . Structurally related to AFB1 Figure 5 , ST is...

Biocontrol of Gray Mold

Botrytis cinerea Pers Fr. is an important pathogen on many vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions as well as under field conditions. Under high humidity conditions or when free moisture is present on the plant surface, the pathogen infects fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems causing tissue decay. This is followed by prolific sporulation of the pathogen, producing a gray mold appearance. Wounded tissues are especially susceptible to this pathogen. Much of the research activity to...

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Long method of composting is the oldest method and now exists only in few pockets of the world mainly because of poor productivity, proneness to attack by the competitors, and also due to more...

Biocontrol of Powdery Mildews

Biological Control Powdery Mildew

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate parasites of plants that derive nutrients and water from their host, thereby reducing growth and yield through the acquisition of photosynthates. The fungi penetrate into the epidermis directly and establish a parasitic relationship with the plant host through the formation of haustoria, the nutrient-absorbing structures. Mycelial growth and sporulation occur on the surface of leaves and stems, resulting in a white fuzzy mildew appearance. Over the years,...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

Auricularia Spp China

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore...

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacterial Biological Control Images

3.2.1 Streptomyces, the Largest Reservoir of Diverse Chemical Structures Actinomycetes have been a major supplier of natural products Huck et al. 1991 Lee and Hwang 2003 . In particular, Streptomyces is a prolific producer of versatile structures of antibiotics. Most of antibiotics developed for agricultural uses including pesticides were isolated from Streptomyces strains Tanaka and Omura 1993 . Among antifungal antibiotics recently discovered from Streptomyces spp., polyketide-spiroketal...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

Legumes are used for food production mainly in Asia. Fermentation improves digestibility of legumes by hydro-lyzing proteins, and breaking down antinutritional molecules like trypsin inhibitors. a Tempe Tempeh Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained,...

Related Products

Mycoprotein Fermenter

Although there is a high variety of microbial protein formulations which can be used as food ingredients, apart from the major Quorn mycoprotein example a number of Figure 3 Electron micrograph of F. venenatum A3 5 as collected from the outlet of the Quorn fermenter, illustrating the filamentous nature of mycoprotein, Courtesy P. Collins, Marlow Foods, UK . mycoprotein products are accepted and being used directly as food for human consumption FDA, http www.fda.gov Haiasz and Lasztity 1991 ....

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Straw Preparation Pleurotus

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus Jack. ex.Fr. Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide...

Fungus Nematode Interactions

Biological Control Nematodes

Arthrobotrys oligospora forms so-called adhesive network traps on which vermiform nematodes are captured. The formation of traps in this fungus is induced chemically by Figure 3 Top figures show infection of nematode egg by the egg parasite Pochonia sp. Germling of the fungus forms an appressorium after contact with the egg surface left . An adhesive is formed and the fungus penetrates the egg shell, grows inside the egg, and digests its contents. Bottom figures illustrates capture and...

Spawn Production

Mushroom Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Paddy Straw Mushroom Diseases

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share...

Role Of Biocontrol Agents In Healthcare

Abbasi PA, Miller SA, Meulia T, Hoitink JA, and Kim J-M 1999 . Precise detection and tracing of Trichoderma hamatum 382 in compost-amended potting mixes by using molecular markers. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 5421-5426. Adams PB and Fravel DR 1990 . Economical biological control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop by Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Phytopathology 80 1121-1124. Ahmed AS, Perez-Sanchez C, Egea C, and Candela ME 1999 . Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum for controlling root rot caused by...

Combined Approach The Agar PlugTLC Method

Crude Fiber Analysis Method

The agar plug method was first introduced as a taxonomic tool for Penicillium in 1983 Frisvad and Filtenborg 1983 . Figure 11 ESI mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 11 ESI mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 12 Cluster analysis of 45 mass spectra from direct infusion ESI MS of crude culture extracts of P nicillium species. Calculated using correlation coefficient and UPGMA linkage. Figure 12 Cluster...