References

The presence and phytotoxicity of fumonisins and AAL-toxin in Alternaria alternata. Toxicon 34 133-136. Bacon CW, Yates IE, Hinton DM, and Meredith F (2001). Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize. Environ Health Perspect 109(2) 325-332. Baudrimont I, Ahouandjivo R, and Creppy EE (1994). Prevention of lipid peroxidation induced by ochratoxin A in Vero cells in culture by several agents. Chem-Biol Interact 104 29-40. Bhatnagar D, Lillehoj EB, Arora DK...

Recent Success in Fungicide Development from Antifungal Leads

Since strobilurin A and oudemansin A were found to be fungicidal metabolites in Basidiomycete fungi Strobilurus tenacellus (Anke et al. 1977) and Oudemansiella mucida (Musilek et al. 1969), respectively, a number of structurally related compounds were reported to have fungicidal activity. Each member of this family incorporates a methyl b-methoxyacrylate group linked at its a-position to a phenylpentadienyl unit, and all the compounds except strobilurin A carry either one or two additional...

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular...

Alkanes And Alkenes

Many soil fungi, such as Aspergillus terreus, Pseudal-lescheria boydii, and the yeast Candida tropicalis, degrade the mixtures of n-alkanes found in crude oil (April et al. 1998 2000 Colombo et al. 1996 Nwachukwu 2000), often with the help of biosurfactants (Lindley 1992). Candida utilis has also been used for the bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic ecosystems (Nwachukwu 2000). Methane, the major component of natural gas, is produced by a variety of methanogenic Archaea. It is utilized for...

Enzyme Activities of Non Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts

With respect to the role played by these non-Saccharomyces species in wine quality, they are known to have the capability to improve the wine aroma (Charoenchai et al. 1997 Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 1998). The available aromas in the grape impart and define the characteristics and the final quality of wine. Terpenic compounds account for most of these aromas. Grape processing liberates small quantities of aromatic terpenols however, odorless precursors in the grape present a large, untapped reserve...

Filamentous Fungi

Compared to yeasts, filamentous fungi have been used less frequently for bioconversion of distillery wastes. The reasons might be that they are slower growing and more susceptible to infection. However, filamentous fungi have some advantages as they produce a series of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and are therefore able to exploit complex carbohydrates without prior hydrolysis this property enables them to grow in starch and cellulose substrates. The second advantage is in their filamentous...

Fungi As Plant Growth Promoter 21 Pgpf

Many fungi isolated from soil can inhibit plant growth. Generally, the inhibition of plant growth is mostly caused by plant-pathogenic fungi, however, some fungi that are not normally considered as pathogens can also inhibit plant growth. These fungi have been termed indefinite pathogenic fungi, and in one study, isolates of Eupenicillium javanicum, Penicillium janthinellim, P. citreonigrum, and P. citrinum obtained from roots of zinnia plant caused a 23-57 inhibition of the growth of the same...

Button Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., popularly known as the white button mushroom, has the widest acceptability and still accounts for more than 30 of total production of all mushrooms. Limited quantities of A. bitorquis, a high temperature species, are also produced in some countries. Its cultivation technology has developed over the years from a primitive cave culture in France in the 16th century to a hightech industry in America and Europe now. Still in many parts of the world, especially in...

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients...

Mycorrhizal Commercialization Techniques and Their Formulations

The use of AM fungi in plant biotechnology differs from that of other beneficial soil micro-organisms because the fungi involved are obligate symbionts and therefore recalcitrant to pure culture. Thus specific procedures are required to culture and handle them specific tools have to be developed and provided to biotechnological producers. (a) Inoculum technology. Plant inoculation with AM fungi results in the formation of a mycorrhizosphere with selective consequences on other important soil...

Role Of Mrgs In Biocontrol And Strain Improvement

A major challenge for researchers investigating the mechanisms involved in the parasitic activity of Trichoderma has been to establish the role of cell-wall degrading enzymes in the process. In fact, we have proposed to call all genes encoding cell-wall degrading enzymes MRGs, because of their apparent relation to the process, until their role is fully determined. Intensive efforts using genetic engineering are currently being directed at this goal. In 1997, Flores and coworkers generated...

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations of the Host

Following AMF colonization, host root tissue P levels are typically enhanced which modify the phospholipid composition and therefore the root membrane permeability resulting in a reduction in the leakage of net amount of sugars, carboxylic acids, and aminoacids into the rhizosphere (Graham and Menge 1982 Ratnayake et al. 1978 Schwab et al. 1983). These alterations arrest the chemotactic effect of pathogens to plant roots and discourage pathogen entry. Prior inoculation of maize plants with G....

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to...

World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six...

Methods for Yeast Characterization

Methods by which strains of the same species can be differentiated have been shown to be very important for yeast strain characterization. In winemaking, several studies have analyzed the diverse microflora of grapes and musts and several interesting methods have been developed (Figure 2). PCR amplification using intron splicing site (consensus sequences that flank introns) displays polymorphism mainly at the within-species level (de Barros Lopes de et al. 1996) PCR amplification of delta...

Production Technology Of Edible Fungi

Production of edible fungi or mushrooms involves many steps, mainly the following (a) Raising and maintenance of mushroom culture, (b) Seed or spawn preparation, (c) Substrate preparation, (d) Growing or cropping, and (e) Postharvest handling While step (a) and (b) are more or less common and similar for most of the mushrooms, it is the substrate preparation, crop raising, and post harvest technology which vary with the type of mushroom. In this article after brief treatment of the step (a) and...

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Perhaps the most important deterrent to the commercial use of mycorrhizal fungi globally is the lack of large-scale multi-location field trials in a variety of agricultural soils and an absence of general lack of awareness among the users. Without such an activity it will be difficult to establish a market for mycorrhizal inoculum. Without a market there is little incentive for a commercial setup to initiate the production of inoculum on a commercial scale, and only large-scale production will...

Genetic Engineering Strategies to Enhance Host Resistance to Mycotoxin Contamination

Plant breeding for resistance is practical when a large germplasm pool exists with differential resistance in the crop, such as exists in corn. However, genetic engineering for resistance may be essential for crops such as cotton which seems to have little resistance to aflatoxin contamination of its seed (Cotty 1989). Extensive research has focused upon identifying genes encoding antifungal proteins effective against mycotoxigenic fungi. Bacterial chloroperoxidase (CPO) (Wolffram et al. 1988)...

Products And Effects

Bioconversion of distillery waste by means of fungi brings a double benefit the effluent is substantially purified and, in addition, it is possible to obtain useful products, such as protein-rich fungal biomass, ethanol, enzymes, etc. Results of bioconversion by yeasts are given in Table 2. In most experiments C. utilis was used as the chosen microorganism, especially for cane molasses stillage (Friedrich et al. 1992). The quantity of cells produced varied significantly with the concentration...

Mycoprotein as Food

The microbial food product of the early 21st century does not base its market success solely on account of its protein content, as vegetable proteins sources are abundant in the market at competitive prices. The resemblance in texture to that of currently appreciated foods, and a bland taste and light color, which renders it susceptible to the addition of flavoring and coloring agents, are also a prerequisite. The filamentous nature of the organism, a feature, which was considered as a...

Other Selected Mycotoxins

In addition to the mycotoxins discussed above, a number of other mycotoxins occur naturally. The impacts of some of these mycotoxins on human and animal health are discussed in the following sections. 3.5.1 Other Mycotoxins Produced by Aspergillus Sterigmatocystin ST is a naturally occurring hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by fungi in the genera Aspergillus, Bipolaris, and Chaetomium as well as P. luteum see Bhatnagar et al. 2002 . Structurally related to AFB1 Figure 5 , ST is...

Biocontrol of Gray Mold

Botrytis cinerea Pers Fr. is an important pathogen on many vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions as well as under field conditions. Under high humidity conditions or when free moisture is present on the plant surface, the pathogen infects fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems causing tissue decay. This is followed by prolific sporulation of the pathogen, producing a gray mold appearance. Wounded tissues are especially susceptible to this pathogen. Much of the research activity to...

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Long method of composting is the oldest method and now exists only in few pockets of the world mainly because of poor productivity, proneness to attack by the competitors, and also due to more...

Benefits Of Mycorrhizal Inoculation

The practical application of mycorrhiza in agriculture is relatively new, though its importance has been evident for some 400 million years. The unique advantage of mycorrhizal organisms is that they not only survive in the most stressful environments but also make the plant to do so. The role of mycorrhiza in land reclamation is most recognized these days. Application of mycorrhizal biofertilizer provides a most desirable solution to many such environmental problems. These...

Biocontrol of Powdery Mildews

Biological Control Powdery Mildew

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate parasites of plants that derive nutrients and water from their host, thereby reducing growth and yield through the acquisition of photosynthates. The fungi penetrate into the epidermis directly and establish a parasitic relationship with the plant host through the formation of haustoria, the nutrient-absorbing structures. Mycelial growth and sporulation occur on the surface of leaves and stems, resulting in a white fuzzy mildew appearance. Over the years,...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

Auricularia Spp China

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore...

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

3.2.1 Streptomyces, the Largest Reservoir of Diverse Chemical Structures Actinomycetes have been a major supplier of natural products Huck et al. 1991 Lee and Hwang 2003 . In particular, Streptomyces is a prolific producer of versatile structures of antibiotics. Most of antibiotics developed for agricultural uses including pesticides were isolated from Streptomyces strains Tanaka and Omura 1993 . Among antifungal antibiotics recently discovered from Streptomyces spp., polyketide-spiroketal...

Related Products

Mycoprotein Fermenter

Although there is a high variety of microbial protein formulations which can be used as food ingredients, apart from the major Quorn mycoprotein example a number of Figure 3 Electron micrograph of F. venenatum A3 5 as collected from the outlet of the Quorn fermenter, illustrating the filamentous nature of mycoprotein, Courtesy P. Collins, Marlow Foods, UK . mycoprotein products are accepted and being used directly as food for human consumption FDA, http www.fda.gov Haiasz and Lasztity 1991 ....

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Straw Preparation Pleurotus

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus Jack. ex.Fr. Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide...

Fungus Nematode Interactions

Arthrobotrys oligospora forms so-called adhesive network traps on which vermiform nematodes are captured. The formation of traps in this fungus is induced chemically by Figure 3 Top figures show infection of nematode egg by the egg parasite Pochonia sp. Germling of the fungus forms an appressorium after contact with the egg surface left . An adhesive is formed and the fungus penetrates the egg shell, grows inside the egg, and digests its contents. Bottom figures illustrates capture and...

Spawn Production

Mushroom Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Paddy Straw Mushroom Diseases

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share...

List of Producers and Formulators of Commercial AM Inoculum

These bio-inoculants are now formulated in different formulations. These are designed on the basis of their application to different crops and locations. They are available in the form of powders, tablets pellets, gel beads, and balls. Intraradical forms of Glomus sp. vesicles and mycelium fragments were entrapped in alginate and used as inocula. Isolated intraradical material was found to regenerate in alginate beads and the regenerated mycelium infected roots under controlled conditions...

Role Of Biocontrol Agents In Healthcare

Abbasi PA, Miller SA, Meulia T, Hoitink JA, and Kim J-M 1999 . Precise detection and tracing of Trichoderma hamatum 382 in compost-amended potting mixes by using molecular markers. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 5421-5426. Adams PB and Fravel DR 1990 . Economical biological control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop by Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Phytopathology 80 1121-1124. Ahmed AS, Perez-Sanchez C, Egea C, and Candela ME 1999 . Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum for controlling root rot caused by...

Mycorrhiza

As a definition of mycorrhizae, Smith and Read 1997 proposed a symbiosis in which an external mycelium of a fungus supplies soil derived nutrients to a plant root. Mycorrhizae are further divided into six types based on anatomical characteristics, which are a arbuscular mycor-rhizae AM , b ectomycorrhizae, c orchid mycorrhizae, d ericoid mycorrhizae, e monotropoid mycorrhizae, and f arbutoid mycorrhizae. Some plants have requirement for mycorrhizae in order to complete their life cycle....

Combined Approach The Agar PlugTLC Method

Agar Plug Method

The agar plug method was first introduced as a taxonomic tool for Penicillium in 1983 Frisvad and Filtenborg 1983 . Figure 11 ESI mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 11 ESI mass spectra from injection of crude extracts of three Penicillium isolates. Figure 12 Cluster analysis of 45 mass spectra from direct infusion ESI MS of crude culture extracts of P nicillium species. Calculated using correlation coefficient and UPGMA linkage. Figure 12 Cluster...