Animal Parasitic Nematodes

There is a large group of nematodes parasitizing both invertebrates and vertebrates. A number of insect-parasitic nematodes, e.g., Steinernema spp., are being developed and commercially used for biological control of plant-parasitic

Ectoparasitic Nematodes

Figure 1 Interactions amongst plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes, and nemaphagous fungi. (A) An ectoparasitic nematode is free living and feeds externally on plant roots by piercing the root surface with its stylet to obtain nutrients. (B) A sedentary endoparasitic nematode (e.g., Meloidogyne spp.) performs most of its life cycle inside infected roots. The figure shows a swollen female with an egg sack, feeding on enlarged root cells (giant cells or syncytia). (C) Root colonization by nematophagous fungi. Fungus penetration of root cells sometimes involves formation of appressoria and inter- and intracellular growth in epidermis and cortex.

Figure 1 Interactions amongst plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes, and nemaphagous fungi. (A) An ectoparasitic nematode is free living and feeds externally on plant roots by piercing the root surface with its stylet to obtain nutrients. (B) A sedentary endoparasitic nematode (e.g., Meloidogyne spp.) performs most of its life cycle inside infected roots. The figure shows a swollen female with an egg sack, feeding on enlarged root cells (giant cells or syncytia). (C) Root colonization by nematophagous fungi. Fungus penetration of root cells sometimes involves formation of appressoria and inter- and intracellular growth in epidermis and cortex.

insects. Other animal-parasitic nematodes, e.g., Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp., cause severe infections and weight loss in animal husbandry (Larsen 2000). Several tropical diseases of humans are also caused by nematodes, such as elephantiasis and river blindness (Poinar 1983).

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