Figure 3 Electron micrograph of F. venenatum A3/5 as collected from the outlet of the Quorn™ fermenter, illustrating the filamentous nature of mycoprotein, (Courtesy: P. Collins, Marlow Foods, UK).
mycoprotein products are accepted and being used directly as food for human consumption (FDA, http://www.fda.gov; Haiasz and Lasztity 1991). Primary grown yeasts for use in human food are feed yeasts, inactive (nonfermentative) yeast cells, classified as "Primary Dried Yeasts" (category 96.1, Official Publication AAFCO 2002; Peppler 1983). The FDA admits the utilization of dried yeast from S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and dried torula yeast (C. utilis) for human consumption provided that the total folic acid content is not greater than 0.4 mg per g of yeast. Dried yeast derived from S. cerevisiae is also accepted for use in bakery products (Code of Federal Regulations, CFR. http://www.access.gpo.gov/ nara/cfr/index.html; Title 21. Sections 172.325 and 172.896; Halasz and Lasztity 1991).
Lallemand Inc (http://www.lallemand.com) produces inactive dry yeast (baker's yeast) as dough conditioner. Moreover, dry yeasts and filamentous fungi containing extra contents of minerals or vitamins are being used to meet specific nutritional requirements. Thus, Diamond Vw and the Chinese Academy of Agriculture report the use of edible selenium enriched yeast and fungi (http://www.diamondv. com; CN Patent 1121531 1996), Lallemand Inc and Burns Philp (http://www.bpfoods.com) produce mineral and vitamin enriched yeasts for human nutrition, and Kohjin Co Ltd (http://www.kohjin.co.jp) and Universal Foods (subsidiary of Lesaffre, http://www.lesaffre.com) have registered patents for production of iron, selenium, glutathione, and zinc enriched yeasts (US Patent 4530846 1985; JP Patent 9248179 1999; JP Patent 2000279164 2000). Finally, an example of production of a cultured yeast product for human and animal consumption from K. marxianus has been registered by DMV USA (http://www.dmv-international.com/dmvusa) subsidiary of Campina International (http://www.campina. com) (US Patent 5486368 1996; EP0643765B1 2001).
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