Epidemiology

From a review of the relevant literature published during the past four years, it seems that the prevalence of ADHD ranges between 7% and 16% [18-22]. This large range of percentages is probably the result of having examined different ages as well having employed different diagnostic tools. Moreover, the possibility of underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis should also be considered. A research study conducted in Israel [23] with adolescents who were at the initial stages of examinations prior to military service (thus, a healthy population sample) found a prevalence of ADHD of 4.9%. Thus, we are discussing a disorder that is prevalent among a population which is defined as healthy.

In clinical studies, the diagnosis of ADHD is more frequent among males than females, with a ratio of 9:1, compared to only 4:1 in epidemiological studies. Part of the gap between boys and girls may be explained by the fact that the disorder is much more easily identified in boys, due to their marked hyperactivity, i.e. the gap is in part the result of selective referral of boys to clinics. Nevertheless, the fact that a difference between boys and girls was also evident in epidemiological studies indicates that boys have an intrinsic greater tendency to develop ADHD.

ADHD is prevalent among all social strata, with no relationship to social or economic status. In clinical studies there is indeed a higher prevalence of patients from lower socioeconomic status, but this is probably due to the more frequent referral of these patients to public clinics, which can be more easily monitored.

Contrary to what was believed in the past, ADHD does not disappear in adolescence. The most frequent diagnostic age is the elementary school, when the disorder becomes evident due to educational and social requirements. Another wave of referrals is at junior high school age, when there is an increase in the number of adolescents who are diagnosed as having a pure attention deficit disorder, detected as a result of increasingly complex school requirements. The accepted estimate to date is that two-thirds of ADHD children continue to suffer from it in adulthood, although the hyperactivity component fades somewhat, whereas in a third of subjects the disorder partially or totally fades [24,25].

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD is a very complicated, and time and again misinterpreted, disorder. Its beginning is physiological, but it can have a multitude of consequences that come alongside with it. That apart, what is the differentiation between ADHD and ADD ADHD is the abbreviated form of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, its major indications being noticeable hyperactivity and impulsivity.

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