Foulds Model

A third stage model, not limited to schizophrenia, of how mental disorders develop and remit, was proposed by Foulds [30]. The model proceeds from the premise that there is a natural sequence of stages from minor to increasingly severe psychopathology and a symmetrically reversed sequence in remitting illness. The stages of evolving illness consist of dysphoric symptoms, neurotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, integrated delusions and disintegrated delusions combined with psychotic disorganization on top.

Construed as applicable to all types of mental illness, this model can hardly be expected to be of sufficient specificity in terms of diagnostic power. Because of that, it is no surprise that de Jong et al. [31], studying a sample of first-episode cases of schizophrenia assessed by the Present State Examination (PSE) in Groningen, and Biehl et al. [32], who studied a first-episode sample of 70 patients with schizophrenia from Mannheim, found a sufficient goodness of fit for the sequence of Foulds' stages in about 85% of their samples. This result means that Foulds' stage model is applicable to the early course of schizophrenia without any substantial benefit in terms of the information it provides, but probably also to many other illnesses with progressive types of courses culminating in psychosis.

BiPolar Explained

BiPolar Explained

Bipolar is a condition that wreaks havoc on those that it affects. If you suffer from Bipolar, chances are that your family suffers right with you. No matter if you are that family member trying to learn to cope or you are the person that has been diagnosed, there is hope out there.

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