Further Syndromes of the Prodromal Phase

Less frequent than depressive symptoms in the early course of schizophrenia are manic and hypomanic symptoms. In studies their frequencies range from 3% to 10% of cases depending on the symptoms defined. They are in part associated with other bipolar symptoms and primarily have episodic or intermittent courses [99].

The catatonic syndrome, which was fairly frequent before the advent of neuroleptics and still is in some developing countries, has become rare in Western Europe and the USA. Only recently have catatonic features started to attract renewed interest [134]. They seem to be most prevalent at a young age. But these fairly rare catatonic subtypes do not seem to be very stable over time [135].

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