Summary

High-risk children show evidence of social skills deficits and poor peer relationships in childhood and in adolescence [50,65-68]. These deficits differentiate high-risk subjects from controls in adolescence but not in childhood [67]. With respect to personality variables, an experimental scale derived from the MMPI [70] predicted schizophrenia with over 95% accuracy and shows promise as a potentially useful screening measure [71]. Children raised by a psychotic parent report themes of abuse and neglect, isolation, guilt and loyalty conflicts, and dissatisfaction with mental health services [72]. Schizophrenic mothers provide less play stimulation, fewer learning experiences, and less emotional or verbal involvement as compared to depressed or healthy mothers [73]. These families are also characterized by a deviant communication style and critical, intrusive parental attitudes [74,75]. Hypoxia has also been implicated in the development of schizophrenia [80] and is associated with an increase in structural brain abnormalities in patients and their siblings [81].

High-risk children with delays in motor development during their first 2 years of life are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia or spectrum disorders in adulthood [23] and they show evidence of poor motor coordination [36] across development [49]. Auditory ERPs have been shown to differentiate high-risk children from controls [87], although Erlenmeyer-Kimling reported that high-risk children in the New York High-risk Project did not differ from controls in measures of P300 or slow wave [30]. Finally, in terms of cognitive functioning, attention deviance has been consistently observed in preschizophrenic children and appears to be a stable and enduring phenomenon [43]. A battery of neuropsychological measures that assess attention deviance, memory and gross motor skills has been shown to predict schizophrenia with an overall accuracy rate of 83% [44] and seems to offer promise as a screening device.

BiPolar Explained

BiPolar Explained

Bipolar is a condition that wreaks havoc on those that it affects. If you suffer from Bipolar, chances are that your family suffers right with you. No matter if you are that family member trying to learn to cope or you are the person that has been diagnosed, there is hope out there.

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