Data gathered from linkage and association studies, high-risk investigations and twin studies are consistent with Kraepelin (see 11) and Koller's (see 10) speculations nearly 100 years ago that schizophrenia is a heritable disorder. Linkage and association studies have been useful in suggesting possible genetic contributors. For example, linkage studies suggest that mutations on chromosomes 6p, 8p and 11q may be involved [16-18]. High-risk studies have contributed significantly to the notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, as evidenced by the presence of social and biobehavioural anomalies spanning from infancy through adulthood [49]. Consistent with cross-sectional investigations, these studies also strongly suggest that attentional impairments are a potentially important predictor of later development of schizophrenia and spectrum disorders [42]. Based on data from the New York High-risk Project, verbal memory, gross motor skills and attention deviance predict schizophrenia with a sensitivity of 46%, specificity of 10% and 83% overall accuracy [44]. Finally, twin studies offer further evidence that genes and environment influence the disease process, although concordance is not found even in monozygotic twins [14]. Guidry and Kent [52] speculate that this lack of concordance may be related to variability in the environment of the developing neuronal system.

BiPolar Explained

BiPolar Explained

Bipolar is a condition that wreaks havoc on those that it affects. If you suffer from Bipolar, chances are that your family suffers right with you. No matter if you are that family member trying to learn to cope or you are the person that has been diagnosed, there is hope out there.

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