frequently in 3 days) and the body temperature normalizes. In the absence of improvement, it is necessary to change the antibiotic.
Chloramphenicol has a broad spectrum of its action and is effective against intestinal infections (typhoid fever, paratyphus A and B), rickettsiosis, spirochaetosis.
Penicillins (salts of benzylpenicillin, bicillin, ampicillin) are highly effective against meningococcal infection and anthrax.
The tetracyclines (hydrochlorides of tetracycline and doxycycline, rondomycin) are effective against rickettsiosis, intestinal infections, tularaemia and plague.
Allergic and endotoxic complications, and also dysbacteriosis can develop following chemotherapy. Allergic reactions occur regardless of the dose or time during which a preparation is given. They manifest by capillarotoxicosis, catarrhs of the mucosa, oedema, skin rash, and shock (loss of consciousness, arterial hypotension, respiratory distress). The endotoxic reaction occurs after administration of priming doses of antibiotics and is explained by liberation of great amount of endotoxin from the dead microorganisms. Dysbacteriosis occurs mostly in treatment with chloramphenicol and the tetracyclines, which inhibits the normal intestinal microflora. Autoinfection develops due to multiplication of staphylococci and yeast-like fungi (Candida) which are a part of natural intestinal flora. Biosynthesis of vitamins, especially of vitamins B, is upset. Another disadvantage of antibacterial therapy is development of resistance of the infective agent to a given preparation.
In order to prevent the allergic response in the patient, a thoroughly collected history is important. Desensitizing preparations should be given whenever necessary (dimedrol, dimedryl, diazolin, diprazin, suprastin). In order to lessen endotoxic reactions, detoxicat-ing and antihistaminic preparations should be given together with antibiotics. Dysbacteriosis can be prevented by nystatin, biologically active bacterial preparations, e.g. colibacterin, lactobacterin, bificol, bifidobacteria
Serotherapy. Serum of immune animals and people is used to treat infectious diseases. The preparations are classed as antitoxic (containing antitoxins) and antibacterial (containing bactericidal antibodies). Antitoxic sera are highly effective. They are prepared by hyperimmunization of animals (e. g. horses, bulls and other animals) with specific exotoxins. Antitoxic sera are used to treat diphtheria, botulism, tetanus, gaseous gangrene, etc. The serum should be administered as early as possible, before the toxins produce irreversible changes in the organs and tissues. Antitoxic serum should be
Was this article helpful?