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Septic forms should be treated with ampicillin in combination with surgery of purulent foci. It is important to prescribe a proper diet to the patient. Vitamins are also necessary.

The patient is recommended to eat oat and rice porridges (without milk), boiled fish, steam-cooked minced meat, fruit jellies, curds and sweet cheese during the first days of the disease.

Prevention and control. Prevention of salmonellosis includes veterinary and medical measures with respect to the source of infection and ways of infection transmission. Veterinary service acts to improve the condition of animals by timely isolation of the diseased animals and their treatment, decontamination of milk and other animal materials obtained from the diseased animals. It is prohibited to the affected animals slaughter (in case of emergency) together with healthy animals. Healthy cattle should be slaughtered immediately after delivery to the slaughterhouse. Meat obtained from diseased cattle can be utilized only after a prolonged thermal treatment. Veterinary inspection must be effective at all stages of handling of animal materials, beginning with the slaughterhouse, transportation, thermal and other treatment, and storage of cooked food at low temperatures. Roddent control is another requisite condition.

In order to locate the source of infection, all persons with acute intestinal diseases of unknown aetiology should be examined for carrier state. Those who develop intestinal dysfunction during their stay in hospital, all infants under two years of age that are admitted to somatic hospitals, should also be tested for carrier state. All persons who are hired for work in food catering and similar establishments, and also children who are prepared for admission to children's institutions should be tested for carrier state as well.

Salmonellosis patients may be isolated at home conditions or taken to hospital. Persons working at food catering and the like establishments, children visiting kindergartens, and infants under two years, who may or may not attend preschool children's institutions, should be hospitalized.

Convalescent persons who work in food catering and the like establishments should be discharged from hospital after a complete clinical recovery and three successive negative stool cultures. (The first test should be performed in 3 days after completion of the specific therapy, the other two tests follow at 1-day intervals). If cultures are positive, the person may not be admitted to perform his routine duties for 15 days after discharge from hospital. Meanwhile they are employed at jobs that do not present epidemiologic danger. Their faeces are tested three times. If a new examination reve

carrier state again, the tests should be repeated at 15-day intervals. If carrier state persists for more than 3 months, the person is considered a chronic carrier and must change his occupation for a year. Three stool cultures and one bile culture (1-2 days later) should be cultivated a year later. If the cultures are positive again, the person should be dismissed from food catering and similar establishments.

Children-carriers of antibiotic-resistant salmonellae should not be admitted to kindergartens. Schoolchildren can be allowed to attend school, but they are not allowed to help their mates in canteens.

Measures in the focus. Current disinfection should be performed at home before the patient is hospitalized or if the patient remains at home till recovery. After hospitalization or recovery of the patient, his apartment should undergo final disinfection. Persons who took care of the patient must be observed for 7 days. Persons who had contacts with the patient, or persons who work at food catering and similar establishments, and also children attending kindergartens and schools should be tested (once) for carrier state.

Measures taken in a collective body (office, school, etc.). If a group of persons are all taken ill, they are given medical aid and epidemiologic studies are undertaken to reveal the particular food that caused the disease outbreak. Circumstances under which this was contaminated should be established. Preventive measures against salmonellosis should be performed by epidemiologists and sanitary physicians.

Pseudotuberculosis

Aetiology. The disease is caused by Yersinia, the bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, that causes plague and yersinosis. Six serotypes are distinguished, among which type I, and less frequently types III and IV, cause disease in human beings. The bacteria are stable in the environment: on vegetables they survive for 2 months, in milk for 18 days, and in water for more than a year. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can multiply at temperatures maintained in a refrigerator (0 to 8 °C); they can withstand multiple frost-defrost cycles. The bacteria are sensitive to the absence of moisture, ultraviolet radiation, and disinfectants.

Epidemiology. The source and reservoir of infection are rodents (mice and rats). Cats, cattle, sheep, goats, some wild animals and birds can also be afflicted by the disease. Rodent-infected vegetable, stores can be especially dangerous, since the bacteria can multip vegetables at temperatures from 4 to 10 °C.

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