T

Tabun - intoxication 356 Taenia solium 594 Takayasu's syndrome 554 talk-and-die syndrome 122, 349, 472 f, 482 tau protein 106, 623, 625, 630 tears of the dura 476 tegmental nuclei 284 tellurium (Te) - intoxication 347 telomere 620 temperature center 400 temporal arteritis Horton 554 temporal artery 554 temporal lobe epilepsy 534, 535 temporary cavity 159, 165 ff, 172 temporoparietal region - lesion 621 tensile strain 166, 206 tension injury - definition 101 tension of the spinal cord 220...

Pathology of Penetrating Injury

The spinal cord injuries caused by stabbing and gunshot differ in their morphologies. Stab wounds are clearly delimited while gunshot wounds are more ragged and destructive. Each type of wound has three zones of destruction (Peters 1955) 1. Zone of primary destruction containing cell and tissue debris. 2. Zone of irreversible damage containing cell fragments, swollen neuronal and glial processes, and protein-rich fluid. 3. Zone of reversible tissue damage, i.e., of peritrau-matic edema with...

Compression Injury of the Cord

Chronic or acute narrowing of the spinal canal by more than 50 compromise of the free antero-pos-terior diameter entails the risk of compressing the cord (Scarff 1960). The acute compression caused by impact (Fig. 10.8a, b) results in an acute neurological deficit of the involved motor and or sensory axons in the cord. Chronic lesions of the cord may be caused by survival after impact-induced compression (Fig. 10.8c, d), as well as by congenital diseases of the vertebral column...

Info

The symptoms are determined by the type and the quantity of electrical current, its path through the body as well as its density, frequency, and duration. Even relatively weak intensity can cause acute symptoms such as paresthesias, muscular spasms and muscular pain, numbness of the limbs, somnolence, convulsions, and loss of consciousness (Panse 1955 Posner 1973 IEC 1987, 1994). The latter symptoms in particular, as well as persistent headache, nausea, and vomiting, may be associated with...

Vascular Myelopathy

Individual vessels and the spinal circulation are among the first tissue components to react to mechanical forces and thus contribute to the pathological and clinical sequelae of acute impact and compressive myelopathy. In rare cases, primary vascular involvement (arterial and or venous disease) and or systemic circulatory processes (prolonged hypotension and or hypoperfusion) without compression can produce segmental or generalized cord lesions. Thus spinal cord ischemia attributable...

Basic Principles

The forensic neuropathologist is asked to examine cases classified as unnatural death. In the United States and Germany, medically attended patients dying of natural causes can be autopsied only with permission of the next of kin. Official autopsies can be performed at the discretion of a forensic pathologist under the following circumstances (cf. Helpern 1977) 1. Sudden and unexpected death of persons in apparently good health 2. Cases involving evidence or suspicion of violent death,...

Siderophages Brain Demyelinating Injury

Contusion injuries of the spinal cord. a Edema immunohistochemistry in longitudinal sections (magnification (H& E, magnification X100) b emigrating leukocytes as demon- c x30, d X300) e, f axonal injury as seen in cross sections (e p-APP, strated by means of naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (mag- f H& E magnification X500) nification X300) c, d axonal injury as demonstrated by p-APP 3. Proliferation of resident cells (mesenchymal and glial reaction) and or resolution 4....

Hippocampus

The hippocampus is extremely sensitive to cardiac arrest, in general, slightly more than even the cerebral cortex, so that changes are often limited to the hippocampus in global ischemia in humans (DeJong et al. 1969 Zola-Morgan et al. 1986) or animals (Auer et al. 1989). It is important to remember, however, that sometimes the hippocampus can be selectively spared (Adams et al. 1966) in global ischemia. In animals, physiologically controlled experiments demonstrate that ischemic periods as...

P

Pacchyonian body 135 pallidum - ischemia 301, 395, 396 panarteritis 553 pan-necrosis of the brain 275, 282, 284, 607 papilledema 42 paraffin embedding 88 parahippocampal gyrus 44 paralysis 529 paranasal sinus 581 paranoia 399 paraoxon (E 600) - intoxication 355 paraplegia 219 paraproteinemia 612 parasagittal brain damage - perinatal ischemia 436, 439 parasympathetic system - overactivity 296 parathion (E 605) - intoxication 355 parathyroid hormone 613 alcohol intoxication 378 paresthesia 254...

A

Abrasion injury 114, 295, 298 abscess - brain 50, 113, 171, 152, 531, 585, 586 abscess - epidural 585 abscess - scar 532 abscess - spinal cord 221 abscess - subdural 586 abuse, child - see child abuse abuse, substance 99 acceleration injury 97, 100 f, 122, 127, 178 f, 183, 473, 493, 509 acceleration injury - angular - see rotational acceleration injury - definition 99, 100 f, 127 acceleration injury - linear 99, 100 f acceleration injury - postnatal 473 acceleration injury - rotational...

Respirator Brain Gross Description

Description Brain

The brain mass commonly is increased (1.6-1.8 kg), but the increase is definitely a function of time on the respirator (Schneider 1970 Walker 1985). Depending on the primary cause of ischemia and time on the respirator, the following macroscopic changes are observed a distinct swelling of the total brain (Fig. 15.1a) the cerebrum may be well-preserved and gray-colored (Fig. 15.1b) or a nondescript friable or mushy mass the swollen and congested cerebral hemispheres have a dusky hue the Fig....

Parenchymal Vessels

Parenchymal vessel walls of the brain are very similar in construction to those of other organs (for details, see Chap. 28, pp. 542 ff). Normal arteries possess an intimal layer composed of endothelial cells with longitudinally oriented nuclei and perikarya. A basement membrane covers the endothelial cells. The internal elastic lamina separates the intimal layer from the lamina media, which consists of smooth muscle cells. The lamina adventitia is formed of loose connective tissue containing...

Physical Trauma

6 Basic Principles of Mechanical Trauma 97 6.4 Biomechanical Aspects and Pathomorphology 99 6.4.3 Types of Mechanical Brain Injury 101 6.5.2 Neuropsychological Impairment 105 6.7 Medicolegal Principles 106 Bibliography 107 References 107 7 Injuries of the Brain's Coverings 111 7.2.2 Biomechanical Aspects 116 7.2.2.1 Linear Calvarial Fractur 117 7.2.2.2 Depressed Calvarial Fracture 117 7.2.2.4 Basilar Skull Fracture 117 7.2.2.5 Facial Skull Fracture 120 7.2.2.6 Growing Skull Fracture 120 7.3.3...

Can Low Po2 Cause Brain Damage

Anesthetists have long known that short periods of hypoxia, unaccompanied by significant hypotension or cardiac arrest, are innocuous. But additional documentation that hypoxia does not cause brain damage comes from the arena of bronchopulmonary and ventilatory diseases, including asthma, anaphylaxis, occlusive bronchitis and bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup, and epiglottidis. One of the most amazing well-documented cases was that of a two-and-a-half-year-old boy, who had a respiratory arrest...

Fat Emboli In Brain

Brain Fat Embolism Histology

As a consequence of bone fracture or crush injury to fat tissue in the pulmonary circulation a massive invasion of fat droplets can occur, increase the vascular resistance and lead to subsequent right ventricular failure. If this condition is survived, after an interval of 18 h to 4 days the patient is at risk of a cerebral fat embolism, which can ultimately lead to death or contribute to the fatal event. If fat em-boli pass through a patent foramen ovale of the heart or pulmonary...

Function

Action Potential Function The Brain

Neurons are the principal transducing cells of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Though they exhibit great structural variation, they all serve the same purpose to receive, process, and transmit information via bioelectric signals Kreutzberg et al. 1997 . Neurons are characterized by their excitability and ability to conduct impulses, i.e., if sufficiently stimulated they release a brief electrical discharge, termed an action potential, which is conducted along the axon. The...