Info

The total separation of all constituents of the nerve, i.e., epineurium, blood vessels, perineurium, columns of Schwann cells and nerve tubes, results in a severe misalignment of nerve tubes. Either the regeneration process is totally frustrated, or the regenerating neurites grow into the nerve tube of a different functional fiber, and, assuming that such a fiber regrows to the target, it may not be able to make a functional innervation and so presumably dies back. The regeneration may be...

Hippocampus

The hippocampus is extremely sensitive to cardiac arrest, in general, slightly more than even the cerebral cortex, so that changes are often limited to the hippocampus in global ischemia in humans (DeJong et al. 1969 Zola-Morgan et al. 1986) or animals (Auer et al. 1989). It is important to remember, however, that sometimes the hippocampus can be selectively spared (Adams et al. 1966) in global ischemia. In animals, physiologically controlled experiments demonstrate that ischemic periods as...

P

Pacchyonian body 135 pallidum - ischemia 301, 395, 396 panarteritis 553 pan-necrosis of the brain 275, 282, 284, 607 papilledema 42 paraffin embedding 88 parahippocampal gyrus 44 paralysis 529 paranasal sinus 581 paranoia 399 paraoxon (E 600) - intoxication 355 paraplegia 219 paraproteinemia 612 parasagittal brain damage - perinatal ischemia 436, 439 parasympathetic system - overactivity 296 parathion (E 605) - intoxication 355 parathyroid hormone 613 alcohol intoxication 378 paresthesia 254...

A

Abrasion injury 114, 295, 298 abscess - brain 50, 113, 171, 152, 531, 585, 586 abscess - epidural 585 abscess - scar 532 abscess - spinal cord 221 abscess - subdural 586 abuse, child - see child abuse abuse, substance 99 acceleration injury 97, 100 f, 122, 127, 178 f, 183, 473, 493, 509 acceleration injury - angular - see rotational acceleration injury - definition 99, 100 f, 127 acceleration injury - linear 99, 100 f acceleration injury - postnatal 473 acceleration injury - rotational...

Respirator Brain Gross Description

The brain mass commonly is increased (1.6-1.8 kg), but the increase is definitely a function of time on the respirator (Schneider 1970 Walker 1985). Depending on the primary cause of ischemia and time on the respirator, the following macroscopic changes are observed a distinct swelling of the total brain (Fig. 15.1a) the cerebrum may be well-preserved and gray-colored (Fig. 15.1b) or a nondescript friable or mushy mass the swollen and congested cerebral hemispheres have a dusky hue the Fig....

Physical Trauma

6 Basic Principles of Mechanical Trauma 97 6.4 Biomechanical Aspects and Pathomorphology 99 6.4.3 Types of Mechanical Brain Injury 101 6.5.2 Neuropsychological Impairment 105 6.7 Medicolegal Principles 106 Bibliography 107 References 107 7 Injuries of the Brain's Coverings 111 7.2.2 Biomechanical Aspects 116 7.2.2.1 Linear Calvarial Fractur 117 7.2.2.2 Depressed Calvarial Fracture 117 7.2.2.4 Basilar Skull Fracture 117 7.2.2.5 Facial Skull Fracture 120 7.2.2.6 Growing Skull Fracture 120 7.3.3...

Can Low Po2 Cause Brain Damage

Anesthetists have long known that short periods of hypoxia, unaccompanied by significant hypotension or cardiac arrest, are innocuous. But additional documentation that hypoxia does not cause brain damage comes from the arena of bronchopulmonary and ventilatory diseases, including asthma, anaphylaxis, occlusive bronchitis and bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup, and epiglottidis. One of the most amazing well-documented cases was that of a two-and-a-half-year-old boy, who had a respiratory arrest...

Fat Emboli In Brain

Brain Fat Embolism Histology

As a consequence of bone fracture or crush injury to fat tissue in the pulmonary circulation a massive invasion of fat droplets can occur, increase the vascular resistance and lead to subsequent right ventricular failure. If this condition is survived, after an interval of 18 h to 4 days the patient is at risk of a cerebral fat embolism, which can ultimately lead to death or contribute to the fatal event. If fat em-boli pass through a patent foramen ovale of the heart or pulmonary...

Manner of Death

A strict distinction must be made between the manner and the cause of a death. The manner of death differentiates between natural and unnatural death, and will give further information on the mechanisms of deaths accident, suicide or homicide. The cause of death also defines the cause of the irreversible cardiac and respiratory arrest or of the respirator brain. As already mentioned, the accused and their legal council and the civil authorities are often only interested in an autopsy when an...

Function

Action Potential Function The Brain

Neurons are the principal transducing cells of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Though they exhibit great structural variation, they all serve the same purpose to receive, process, and transmit information via bioelectric signals Kreutzberg et al. 1997 . Neurons are characterized by their excitability and ability to conduct impulses, i.e., if sufficiently stimulated they release a brief electrical discharge, termed an action potential, which is conducted along the axon. The...