Bread Baking

Bread Making

Bread Making

Discover How To Surprise Family and Friends With Homemade Bread? Is Your Bread Coming Out Doughy Or Crumbly? Well, you don't have to be frustrated anymore by baking bread that doesnt rise all of the way or just doesn't have that special taste.

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Fermentation And Bread Making

Many cereals and legumes are extensively used in the preparation of a variety of fermented foods 13,14 . Microbes used in these fermentations may be natural microflora commonly found in the cereal legume that are fermented or specially cultivated cultures designed to bring about specific changes in the cereal legume that is being fermented. The type of microorganism, the fermentation conditions used, and the starting amount of phytate present in the raw material significantly affect the extent of phytate removal (Table 10.6). The efficiency of the microbial enzymes controls the rate and extent of phytate removal during fermentation. Numerous studies indicate that phytate hydrolysis during fermentation significantly improves bioavailability of minerals (calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, and iron). Phytate hydrolysis occurs throughout the different stages of bread making and obviously depends on the type of bread

A S Meyer Technical University of Denmark

This chapter focuses on the antibacterial action mechanisms and bacteriocidal effects of enzymes that have been investigated as possible preservative agents in different foods and beverages. Various enzyme preparations have been added routinely for decades - or even longer - in food processing. Important examples include addition of rennet in cheese making, amylases in bread baking, and pectinases in fruit juice production. Obviously, the purpose of these conventional enzyme additions is to promote specific transformations of crucial technological significance, e.g., to accelerate the clotting of milk during cheese manufacture or to improve the baking performance of flour in bread making. At present, the applications of enzymes in food processing constantly expand and today the addition of exogenous enzymes is employed in a very large number of different food and beverage processes and several new applications of enzymes in food ingredient manufacture and food processing are projected...

Historical Developments

Historically, SSF processes have been used since ancient time for food applications. Although it is believed that the discovery of fermentation was purely by chance, food fermentation was developed several thousands of years ago. SSF dates back to 6000 BC when Babylonians made beer from natural yeast. Egyptians used this technique for bread making in 2600 BC, using brewer's yeast. Cheese making with Penicillium roquefortii was recorded in Asia before the birth of Christ. Koji processing reported to be migrated from China to Japan in the seventh century. Miso, tempeh, tamari sauce, soy sauce, ang-kak, natto, tou-fu-ru, and minchin are some of the other ancient fermented foods known for centuries, which are prepared through SSF. Tempeh and tamari sauce are soybean products, the former is an Indonesian food fermented by Rhizopus species and the latter is a Japanese food produced by using Aspergillus tamari. Soy sauce, a brown, salty, tangy sauce, is obtained from a sterile mixture of...

Understanding consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour occurs in sequential stages and at each stage there is a use of knowledge to make decisions. General consumer behaviour has six action stages as shown in Fig. 5.1 (Engel et al., 1995). This sequence can be followed by a further divestment stage where, with food products, the consumer chooses between the options of disposal or recycling of the waste and the packaging. Parallel to these seven consumer actions is the information processing conducted by the consumer. When the consumer recognises the need, there is an internal search in their memory and may be an external search of the supermarket shelves, the menu, and information from other people, media or consumer reports. They may also have been exposed to TV advertising or to promotions in the supermarket or even to the aroma of bacon sizzling or bread baking in the retail outlet. Engel et al. identified five steps in the use of information by the consumer for knowledge building

Enzymecatalyzed Oxidation

Ase is believed to be a free-radical mediated reaction in which the alkyl or peroxy radicals are involved. Besides the bleaching effect, using soy flour in bread making often results in an improvement of the dough-forming properties (34-36). It has been proposed that in a peroxidizing system, the radicals enter into coupled oxidation of cysteine residues in the flour proteins and cause structural changes in the dough (Scheme 8).

Electrophoretic and other techniques for identifying varieties by protein composition

Separation of gliadins using capillary electrophoresis has enabled more precise differentiation of wheat varieties and promises to become a routine tool for wheat varietal identification (Marchylo et al., 1992 Noni et al., 1994 Lookhart and Bean, 1995a) and for prediction of quality (Bietz and Schmalzried, 1995). This technique gives excellent resolution of high molecular weight glutenin subunits that correlate with bread-making quality (Werner et al., 1994).

Shelf Life Butea Monosperma

Upgraded lecithins have been employed as effective foam control agents in whipped toppings, ice creams, and many types of candies. They have also been used as effective defoaming agents in foams caused by powdered proteins in water. This is an excellent example of the system specificity of lecithin products.50 Lecithin is used in a large variety of food products such as margarine, confections, snack-food, soups, baked goods, cheese products, processed meat, poultry and fish products, dairy and dairy-type products, and dairy supplements. Commercial soybean lecithin products have been used in many food applications which are not directly related to their emulsification activities. Some of these include (1) co-emulsification for monoglyc-erides to interact with amylose, (2) deoiled soy lecithin, 95 powder, as co-dispers-ant, (3) spray-dried combination of standard soy lecithin and milk solids (mainly lactose) as a dispersant and wetting agent, (4) spray-dried combination of modified...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding fluid. Because sucrose masks unpleasant flavors, sugar syrups are used as carriers for drugs and medicines, especially for young children who cannot swallow...

Types Of Fermentation Processes Single Culture Fermentation

The key to the success of single-culture fermentation is to provide the culture with a sterile substrate and environment with no contamination during the fermentation process. Examples include wine making, beer making, bread making, production of single-culture fermented dairy products, and vinegar production. In this type of fermentation the viable cells increase in a typical growth curve sequence of lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, and death phase. Primary metabolites (alcohol, acid, etc) are made during the log phase, and secondary products (antibiotics, toxins, etc) are made after the culture reaches the stationary phase.

Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation has been used long before the underlying microbiological or biochemical processes involved were understood. The use of naturally occurring microorganisms in the preparation of foods such as bread and cheese, or directly as food such as mushrooms, dates back many centuries, and these are some examples of traditional solid-state fermentation systems (4). As early as 2600 b.c., Egyptians were making bread by methods essentially similar to those of today (4). In Asia, cheese had been prepared as food for several hundred years before the birth of Christ (4). The preparation of koji for soy sauce and miso production in Japan and Southeast Asia goes back as far as 1000 years ago and probably 3000 years ago in China (4,5). Preservation of fish, meat, and other animal products by solid-state fermentation goes back about 2500 years (4). Vinegar was produced by solid-state fermentation from fruit pomace in the eighteenth century (5). The production of gallic acid is...

Degradation Of Phytate In The Colon

Inositol phosphates in the feces material were analyzed (Sandberg, Andersson, Cummings, unpublished results) 68 . A mean of 25-35 hydrolysis of InsP6 was found, although individual variation occurred (Table 9.2). There were no significant differences between the dietary periods, and there was no increased degradation after the third period compared with the first period. As the diet did not contain phytase activity, the results suggest that a degradation of phytate occurs in the colon of humans. In the feces samples from a human subject consuming the white bread diet supplemented with high amounts of sodium phytate, constituting the main source of phytate in the diet, almost equal amounts of DL-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 and DL-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 were found 65 . Both cereal phytase (EC during bread making and mi-crobial phytase (EC from the microflora of the colon participate in the degradation of phytate. Moreover, the feces samples contained several different isomers of...

Collaboration with the food industry retail and manufacturing

In response to the exasperation expressed by members, the Anaphylaxis Campaign has raised the issue on many occasions during discussions with retail companies. We believe there may be some room for manoeuvre. Supermarkets are probably right to discourage people with nut allergies from eating cakes or pastries bought in their in-store bakeries, but they might reduce risk where bread-making is concerned. Managers might look at their operations and consider whether it is possible to dedicate their bread-making area as a nut-free zone. Instead, most of them effectively put in-store bakery products out of bounds for people with severe allergies. I will be returning later to the general problems of cross-contamination and disclaimer labelling.

Maillard Reaction And Formation Of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds In Food

Maillard Reaction Food

Flavors can be produced either naturally by the action of enzymes or by thermal processing due to the interaction of different food components or their pyrolytic degradation. The interaction of reducing sugars with amino-containing components and their subsequent reactions is termed non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction (17-21). This reaction is considered to be the most important reaction in food chemistry because in addition to flavors, it is also responsible for the formation of color, antioxidants, carcinogens, and so on. It can also reduce the nutritional value of foods by effectively decreasing the concentration of essential amino acids. The Maillard reaction results in the formation of distinctive brown color and aroma of broiled, baked, and roasted food products. Consequently, many unpleasant-tasting raw foods can be transformed by Maillard reactions into desirable products via processes such as bread baking, coffee roasting, and chocolate manufacture. The Maillard...

Future Development

Dryers already have reduced the space requirement three to four times with no reduction in production. Microwave bread baking could mean smaller bakeries located closer to their markets and have a significant impact on transportation costs. Microwave-assisted baking is another process that could find a niche in the supermarket bakeries to provide just-in-time baked products and thereby eliminate the daily loss of excess product to ensure latecoming shoppers of the same choice available to early shoppers.

Grains Wheat

In addition to wheat of the Tritium aes-tivum genus and durum wheat, the Romans and medieval Europeans cultivated several other wheat species whose plants bore only a single or double grain, among them einkorn, spelt, and emmer. Although wheat played some role in stuffings, potages, soups, and sausages, most of it was turned into bread. For thousands of years bread has been synonymous with food and has figured prominently in religion and society. The breaking and blessing of bread is a fundamental aspect of orthodox Jewish custom, and Christians believe that in the Eucharist bread is transformed into the body and blood of Jesus. To modern consumers it may seem like a simple foodstuff, and yet much technological progress was needed to turn cultivated grain into leavened bread. Milling, leavening, and baking went through various stages of development over the centuries. In Roman times, waterpower was already used to grind flour, and by a.d. 1000 windmills...

Functional Quality

Wheat gluten is a complex mixture of proteins with over 50 individual components, but one group of proteins, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin, which form HMW (above 1x106-Da) polymers stabilized by inter-chain disulfide bonds, are particularly important. A range of studies provide strong evidence that the glutenin polymers are responsible for gluten elasticity, and the variation in quality is associated with differences in the number (three, four, or five), amounts (about 6 to 12 of the total protein), and properties of the glutenin polymers and their constituent subunits (Shewry, 1998 Shewry et al., 2000). Shewry's research group has shown that increasing the number of expressed subunits in a wheat line with a poor-quality background from two to three and four results in stepwise increases in dough elasticity, mirroring the effects of manipulating gene dosage by conventional breeding however, it has been possible to go beyond the gene dosage obtainable by...

Baking Industry

Considering the energy distribution in bread making, the heating of pans and lids used 26 of the energy. The rest of the energy use lost either through ventilation (31 ), exhaust gases (13 ), or radiation and convection losses from the walls (30 ) (33). These figures show that there are some major energy-conserving opportunities in the baking industry. These steps include minimization of the ventilation of the oven, use of materials with lower heat capacities in the pans and lids and use of heat exchangers to recover heat from the hot exhaust gases.

Think break

The sales office of a large flour miller has just received a bread-baking mix from the production department. Recently there was a marked increase in the number of small hot-bread shops and the salespeople think that these small bakers might be a good market for this product. A salesperson knows a small baker and takes a bag of the mix to him. The baker promises to try it and in a day or two the salesperson has a telephone call from the baker to say that the product was a failure - there were difficulties in processing and the final loaf was small and hard.


In all the Australian states, in the capital cities, and in many regional centers, there are colleges of technical and further education which offer diploma courses in most of the areas already listed and also certificate or trade courses in baking, bread making, butchery, small goods manufacture, meat inspection, dairy products manufacture, food processing, food laboratory techniques, packaging, hospitality, and catering and commercial cookery.


In another study of bread making, Turk and Sandberg 43 investigated the effects of different dough additives. Bread was made using whole wheat flour and flour of 60 extraction rate, yeast was added, and phytate degradation was studied after different fermentation times. The addition of milk to the dough inhibited enzymatic phytate hydrolysis resulting in depressed human iron absorption from the bread 44 . Fermented milk did not significantly affect enzymatic hydrolysis during fermentation, probably depending on the presence of lactic acid lowering thepH 43 . The addition of acetic acid or lingonberries

Biochemical Tests

Changes in grain enzyme concentrations, e.g., amylases, due to fungal deterioration are important as they have an impact on processing and bread making quality of flour and dough. However, studies which examined a-amylase, b-amylase, and total amylases of wheat found no correlation with the time to microscopic visible molding (Magan 1993). Fleurat-Lessard (2002) suggested that for both wheat and malting barley enzyme changes are too small and occur to late as functions of storage conditions and duration, especially with regard to incorporation in a model for decision support systems.


Phytase catalyzes the stepwise hydrolysis of phytate to phosphate and inosi-tol. Commercial sources of phytase are derived from wheat bran or microbial or fungal sources and are used in pretreatment of feed or during food fermentation. Phytase is added to swine and poultry rations to improve phytate phosphorus utilization. This can lessen the environmental concern of phosphorus water pollution from unabsorbed phytate. Fermentation of food with yeast, germination of seeds, treatment of foods with phytase, or removal of phytase with acid plus salt and ultrafiltering can improve mineral absorption (Table 13.2). Leavening during bread making improves mineral absorption. The impact of added phy-tase on mineral bioavailability can depend on the source. As shown in Table 13.2, microbial phytase removed all the inhibition of phytate on iron absorption, whereas, wheat phytase was ineffective. A. niger phytase has pH optima at 2.0 and 6.0, so hydrolysis could occur in the stomach, whereas, the...

Ale Beer

For thousands of years cereals have been used not only for bread making but also for beer brewing. Alcoholic drinks from grains were known in ancient Egypt and the Middle East, as well as northern Europe. Usually made from barley malt, water, and yeast, ale was typically produced in small batches by individual households in the Middle Ages, or by brewers, many of them women known in England as alewives. It was sold to the public in alehouses, or peddled by hucksters in the streets. Not until the sixth or seventh century a.d. did monks in northern Italy begin to add hops as an ingredient in the brewing process. The natural preservatives and bitter taste of hops resulted in a drink that kept better than ale and was bitter rather than sweet. It became known as beer, a word presumably derived from Latin bibere, meaning to drink. The practice of brewing hopped beer spread northward and became especially popular in the Low Countries, that is, the area of today's Belgium and the Netherlands,...


The gluten protein fraction in wheat flour. Gluten is the water-insoluble viscoelastic protein mass left after soluble proteins, starch, and other nonprotein materials have been washed out from the flour. Gluten is composed mainly of hydrated forms of the two major wheat protein fractions, namely, gliadins (wheat prolamins) and glutenins (wheat glutelins).63 75 These proteins contribute in different ways to the properties of the flour during processing and in the final product. Thus, gliadins provide viscosity and extensibility to bread dough, whereas glutenins provide the elasticity that is all-important in dough stability and in the structure and texture of bread. Differences in proportions and properties of these two protein fractions determine whether a particular wheat variety has good bread-making properties or is more suitable for the production of other products, such as pasta or biscuits. A molecular basis for these properties has been proposed, based on the characteristics...