Natural Breast Enlargement
The probable beneficial effects of phytoestrogens against breast cancer are likely to be mediated via numerous mechanisms. However, it has not been fully established whether the protective effects of soya and cereals result from their phytoestrogen content or from some other effect. Many studies utilising breast cells in culture such as the oestrogen-sensitive MCF-7 cell line show that phytoestrogens (genistein was used in most of studies) stimulate tumor growth at low concentrations while inhibiting growth at higher concentrations. Genistein is a potent and specific in vitro inhibitor of tyrosine kinase action in the autophosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and is thus frequently used as a pharmacological tool. The EGF receptor is overexpressed in many cancers, particularly those with the greatest ability for metastasis, and it has therefore often been assumed that some of the anticancer effects of genistein are mediated via inhibition of tyrosine kinase...
Phytoestrogens are dietary components that have a chemical structure similar to that of endogenous estrogens. The primary phytoestrogens in the diet are obtained from soybean isoflavones (including genistein and daizein). These compounds appear to be able to weakly mediate some the genomic and nongenomic effects of estrogen and may function as agonists or antagonists, depending on the tissue and type of estrogen receptor involved. To date, supplemental sources of these compounds have not been found to decrease fracture risk. Additional clinical trials will assist in determining the long-term impact of phytoestrogens on bone health and fracture risk.
As the culture of consumer capitalism penetrates the island, white skin, round eyes, high-bridged noses, oval-shaped faces, large breasts, slender bodies, and long legs have become symbols of female beauty and attractiveness. However, standards for men are less exacting. While to be tall is the basic preferred bodily feature for men, power and status counterbalance any deprecated physical characteristics.
In the approximately 265 days that elapse between fertilization and delivery of a full-term infant, the mother provides all of the resources required to transform a single pluripotential cell into a complete new individual comprised of more than 600 billion highly specialized cells and weighing about 3.5 kg. Demands on maternal homeostasis to support these remarkable events are not constant but change as pregnancy progresses. Throughout the pregnancy her homeostatic control mechanisms ensure a hospitable environment of constant temperature, oxygen supply, waste disposal, and availability of nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. In addition, she supports growth and development of the placenta and its extraordinary metabolic activity. To house the growing fetus and placenta, her uterus grows from around 50 g to more than 1 kg and from about 7 cm to more than 40 cm in length. It also acquires the contractile capacity required to expel the baby at term. Her breasts grow and develop, and she...
Subsequently, in patients who develop gynecomastia, blood testosterone levels decrease and blood estradiol levels increase. These changes come about by increases in metabolic clearance rate of testosterone as well as an increase in peripheral conversion to estradiol. Consequently, excessive stimulation of breast tissue as a result of an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone in the body leads to increased ductal proliferation and tender breast enlargement in males. Discontinuation of the drug results in slow reversal of this process sometimes requiring several months for complete normalization of breast size.
Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants which occur in a variety of foods of vegetable origin, such as tea, onions and apples. Data from several prospective studies indicate an inverse association of dietary flavonoids with coronary heart disease.68 A benefit on stroke risk has also been reported.69 However, confounding may be a major problem and may explain conflicting results of observational studies on flavonoids and coronary heart disease. Fruit and vegetables also contain other phytochemicals that may have protective properties, including isothiocyanates and indoles (found in cruciferous vegetables), sulfides (found in onions and garlic), terpenes (found in citrus oils), and phytoestrogens.47 While their role in relation to CVD risk is not clearly established and trial evidence related to garlic supplements is generally not supportive, their consumption in the natural food form may have benefits, which need to be evaluated.
Obtaining a thorough history and physical examination should be the first step in evaluating the patient found to have an adrenal incidentaloma. Functional tumors, primary adrenocortical cancers, or metastases to the adrenal gland can often be diagnosed on the basis of a detailed history and physical examination alone. Questions should therefore be directed to rule out these entities. The patients should be asked about excessive weakness, extremes of mood, or recent unexplained weight changes. Females should be asked about a deepening of their voice, recent growth of hair on their face, chest, or arms, or changes in menstruation. Likewise, males should be questioned about breast enlargement or impotence. All of these questions are directed at identifying benign or malignant functioning adrenocortical tumors that can secrete steroid hormones such as cortisone, aldosterone, or sex hormones. In addition, the presence of symptoms associated with a pheochromocytoma, such as hypertension,...
Physical findings include truncal obesity with peripheral muscle wasting as in Cushing's syndrome, virilization in women or feminization in men, abdominal striae, and left varicocele. Virilization in women can include hirsutism, clitoromegaly, severe thinning of the hair, and deepening of the voice. Feminization in men is usually manifested by breast enlargement, softening of the skin, and frequent mood changes. The above physical findings are all secondary to excess sex hormone production. It is unusual to palpate an adrenocortical cancer since truncal obesity can often occur. However, a patient may present with a left varicocele from occlusion of the left spermatic vein, or even bilateral lower extremity edema secondary to obstruction of the inferior vena cava.
Isoflavonoids are a unique subgroup of the flavanoids, one of the largest classes of plant phenolics, with more than 5000 compounds currently identified. Isoflavonoids are found mainly in soybeans, and possess a chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen (1). The chief isoflavonoids found in soybeans are genistein and daidzein. Because their structures resemble estrogen and they can interact with the estrogen receptor, soybean isoflavonoids are sometimes referred to as phytoestrogens (17). 188.8.131.52 Phytoestrogens and Postmenopausal Activity The structure of soybean isoflavonoids is uniquely similar to that of estrogen (17) and may account for their weak ability to act as agonists at estrogen receptors (38). Many have speculated that soybean isoflavonoids may be useful for the treatment of somatic, mood, and cognitive disturbances associated with the onset of menopause (39). Diet supplementation with soybean phytoestrogens has been reported to ameliorate hot flashes and...
The complications associated with breast implant reconstruction are listed in Table 14-1. Of these, scar tissue is perhaps the most problematic for the reconstruction patient as time goes on. The body normally forms a layer of scar tissue around any artificial material implanted beneath the skin. With breast implants, that scar tissue is called a capsule and the process of scarring and subsequent deformation of the breast shape is called capsular contracture. If the capsule which forms remains thin and pliable, it will be nonvisible and nonpalpable and of little concern to a patient. In some patients the capsule can become quite thick, resulting in a firm breast which can be distorted in shape. The variability in capsule formation is a reflection of each individual's biologic response to an implant as well as responses to infection around the implant and surgical bleeding around the time of surgery. Capsular contracture requires surgery to relieve symptoms. That surgery consists of...
Breast implants are thin-walled containers made of hard silicone plastic that are filled with saline (salt water) or silicone gel. They have been in use for 30 years and have an excellent safety record. The Institute of Medicine's recent review of breast implants and their safety found saline and silicone gel implants to be similar. Both types of implants were associated with local complications (rupture, scar formation called capsular contracture, and infection) but not with systemic complications as once feared. The decision to use saline implants versus silicone implants is often patient driven or determined by surgeon's preference.
Yet cultural meanings are also local and contested. This aspect of culture highlights its dynamic, changing quality and gives weight to forces of change and interaction. From this perspective, culture is constantly being transformed. People within groups may be aware of group norms, but those norms themselves change over time, and people choose to reject the norms or manipulate their behavior within them. For example, human beauty standards, and their health-related consequences, change dramatically over time. The corset allowed one set of health problems (muscle atrophy, liver damage) to emerge, whereas a century later breast augmentation caused others (pain, scar tissue, implant rupture). Food preferences, time pressure, and large-scale industrial meal production combine to create a new epidemic of obesity based on fast food and sedentism.
There is still some question about whether it is safe to breast-feed if you have silicone breast implants, but there is no conclusive evidence that infants are harmed. The surgery for breast implants usually does not interfere with milk ducts or the nipples unless the incision was made around the edge of the areola. This surgery should not prevent successful nursing.
Vegetables may protect against cancer, not through their fibre content, but as a result of a number of potential anticancer agents that they contain (e.g. phytoestrogens for breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers). Phytoestrogens include isoflavi-noids and lignans. Isoflavinoids are diphenolic compounds found in leguminous vegetable - soya and other beans, chickpeas and plants lignans, which are also diphenolic compounds, are formed by microflora in the gut from complex precursors found in vegetables. Both contain a number of conjugated weak oestrogens which, following ingestion, are deconjugated to active forms which are absorbed and excreted in the urine and faeces. As their concentration in body tissues is many times greater than that of endogenous oestradiol, they successfully compete for binding to the oestrogen receptor, suppressing endogenous oestrogen action. Dietary dipheno-lics are antioxidants and scavenge-free radicals.
Second, there is serious disagreement over appropriate language, reflecting the competing values in the debate. Male newborn genital alteration is almost always referred to as circumcision, a vaguely medical term that signals society's acceptance of this procedure. Conversely, the term uncir-cumcised, as opposed to intact or natural, signals the normative status of the circumcised male in American culture. When writers use circumcision to refer to the female procedure, there is often an outcry opponents of the female procedure and defenders of the male procedure alike object to casting them in the same light. The term female genital mutilation, preferred by most opponents of the procedure and the term officially adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO), has its own problems. For one, as anthropologists Sandra D. Lane and Robert A. Rubinstein point out, mutilation implies removal or destruction without medical necessity, which logically ought to refer to routine male circumcision...
It is also true that there are very many naturally occurring endocrine disruptors, including the phytoestrogens present in vegetables, notably soya beans, peas, beans, cabbage, and hops. However, since this issue is very serious a considerable amount of work has now been initiated and its results will have implications for future testing of pesticides.
Increased prolactin levels can also be caused by nipple stimulation, chest wall trauma, reduction mammoplasty, breast augmentation, herpes zoster infection of the breast, and postherpetic neuralgia. Rare oncologic causes include ectopic secretion by renal adenocarcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, and other prolactin- or estrogen-secreting neoplasms. Increased physical exertion, sexual intercourse, seizures, and hypoglycemia can also stimulate prolactin release.
Weight increases by 10-12 kg due to increases in maternal body water and fat, the foetus, placenta, amniotic fluid and the uterus. At term, 40 of the weight gained is often in the foetus, amniotic fluid, placenta and uterus. Breast enlargement is typical in normal pregnancy due to human placental lactogen secretion. Enlarged breasts may be a cause of difficult intubation and the use of a short handle laryngoscope or polio blade may help to overcome this problem.
Isoflavones are flavonoids, but they are also called phytoestrogens because of their oestrogenic activity. Structurally, they exhibit a similarity to mammalian oestrogens and bind to oestrogen receptors a and 3. Apart from basic structural similarities, the key to their estrogenic effect is the presence of the hydroxyl groups on the A and B rings. They are classified as oestrogen agonists but also as oestrogen antagonists since they compete with oestrogen for their receptor. They have also been demonstrated to exert effects that are independent of the oestrogen receptor.
The conflict between diet-based observational studies and clinical trials employing supplements may arise because of one or more explanatory factors confounding, interactions synergistic activity (among antioxidants - with other nutrients), isomers with differing activity in food compared to supplements, other associated protective elements in natural foods (for example, flavonoids, phytoestrogens) and or temporal dissociation of antioxidant blood levels from fat intake in meals when administered as once a day pills. While the failure of pill supplementation does not necessarily exclude protective effects of dietary antioxidants, current evidence does not support supplementation of any of these antioxidant vitamins for prevention of CHD. However, intake of their primary food resources, especially fruit and vegetables, may be encouraged.
The bran layer is the outer thick-walled structure of the grain. It is rich in B vitamins and phytonutrients such as flavonoids and indoles plus a small amount of protein. It also contains antioxidant compounds including phytoestrogens such as lignans and isofla-vones. These hormonally active compounds, similar to estrogen, may influence sex hormone metabolism and may impact on hormone-related disease. The bran also contains factors that may decrease bioa-vailability of nutrients such as phytic acid, tannins, and enzyme inhibitors. It is also where the bulk of insoluble fiber is found. The insoluble fiber contained within the bran layer has long been recognized to play an important role in intestinal health, by optimizing bowel transit time and increasing fecal weight. But some of the health benefits associated with a high-fiber diet may come from other
Additional studies focusing on food benefits have identified a number of phytoestro-gens, compounds found in plants that have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the estrogen receptors. These phytoestrogens include the lignans found in flaxseed, the coumestans in alfalfa sprouts, and the polyphenolic catechins found in teas (63). Chemopreventative studies in rodents examining phytoestrogens indicate that at high concentrations, these agents can impart protection in the mammary gland, which can be hoped will translate into human chemoprotection.
The incidence of breast and prostate cancer is much higher in Western countries than in Far Eastern ones, where there is an abundance of dietary phytoestrogens. Populations in the Far East have been consuming soyabean for centuries. In contrast, Western cultures and diets have only started to adopt soy foods much more recently. Western-style soy foods are produced by modern processing techniques in large soybean-processing plants. Traditional soy foods, made from soybeans, include both nonfermented and fermented foods. The non-fermented soy foods include soy milk and the soy milk product tofu and also whole-fat soy flour, soy nuts, whole dry beans, and fresh green soybeans. Traditional fermented soy foods include soy sauce, tempeh, natto, miso, and fermented tofu and soy milk products. Soy milk is the name given to the aqueous extract derived from whole soybeans. A cup of soy milk is thought to contain approximately 40 mg of isoflavones. In soybeans, textured vegetable protein, and...
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