Other groin swellings

Other structures in the groin each contribute to the harvest of swellings, pains and discomforts patients complain of. These include 1. Vascular disease (a) Arterial - aneurysms of the iliac and femoral vessels these may be complicated by distal embolization or vascular insufficiency which will make the diagnosis easy. Femoral aneurysm as a complication of cardiac catheterization or transluminal angioplasty is a recent arrival in the diagnostic arena. (b) Venous - a saphenovarix could be...

Nipple retraction inversion

The terms nipple retraction and inversion have come to be used interchangeably. However, nipple inversion is most often used when the whole of the nipple is permanently pulled inwards, whilst nipple retraction is used to describe variable degrees usually intermittent of the nipple being pulled inwards. Congenital nipple inversion of variable degree occurs in up to one-fifth of all women. This is usually of no clinical significance unless it interferes with breast feeding. The woman may present...

Cushings diseaseCushings syndrome

Cushing's disease is the excess production of glucocorticoids secondary to over-stimulation of the adrenal cortex by a pituitary tumour producing excess ACTH. Cushing's syndrome is the excess presence of glucocorticoids secondary to an autonomous glucocorticoid adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, ectopic ACTH production or the administration of large doses of steroids as medical therapy. Clinically the patient presents with truncal obesity, moon face, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal striae, acne and...