Clinical examination

An accurate and thorough clinical examination of the patient in general and also the particular joint or joints involved is essential to determine the cause of an arthropa-thy. Clinical examination involves assessing the alignment and stability of the joint and associated soft-tissue swellings, including any effusion within the joint. Scars or sinuses suggesting surgery and infections must be noted. It is important to palpate for local temperature (warm in case of inflammatory pathologies and hot in acute infections) any bony areas for tenderness and to assess the range of both active and passive movements. General examination must assess other joints involved as well as the musculoskeletal system, looking for signs that may confirm an inflammatory or infective arthropathy. The format most popular in orthopaedics is took, feel, move (inspection, palpation, movements) followed by special tests for specific pathologies suspected, neurological assessment, vascular assessment, assessment of other joints and Gait.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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