Ldh

>200 U

<200 U

Note: LDH - Lactic dehydrogenase.

+20 cmH2O.

Figure 18.6. A solitary non-calcified nodule is shown in the Right upper lobe. It is active on a PET scan which makes it likely to be malignant.
Figure 18.7. Basic spirometry. RV: residual volume; ERV: expiratory reserve volume; TV: tidal volume; IRV: inspiratory reserve volume; FEV1: forced expiratory capacity in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity.

For therapeutic purposes a rigid bronchoscopy gives better access to the airways but is uncomfortable and best done under a general anaesthetic. Respiration is maintained by a Venturi jet insufflator. It is the procedure of choice in the investigation of patients with massive haemoptysis, for the removal of inhaled foreign bodies and laser resection of endobronchial lesions or insertion of stents. Larger biopsies of tissue can be obtained through the rigid bronchoscope and if significant bleeding occurs this can usually be controlled with a pledget soaked in adrenaline.

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