Ebook Guide To Canning And Preserving

Ultimate Guide To Canning And Preserving

Discover the secrets to canning and preserving foods quickly and easily in Victoria Stewart's Ultimate Guide To Canning And Preserving. With this e-book, you'll learn how to can and preserve your own food at home, so you can be sure you'll provide organic, delicious and healthy food for your family. Ultimate Guide To Canning And Preserving is jam-packed with expert advice on saving foods with less time and effort and without using expensive equipment. You'll learn the different methods to use for various foods, the basic materials you'll need to get started, the precautions you'll need to take and much more.

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Heat treatment blanching and canning

Heat treatments are responsible for irreversible denaturation of cellular tissue in fruits or vegetables causing softening and juice loss. Vacuum infusion technology was consequently used before heat treatment such as blanching, pasteurising and canning with an aim of limiting thermal damages in the product. It is of particular interest to note the treatment of button mushrooms (McArdle et al., 1974 Gormley and Walshe, 1986 Demeaux et al., 1988), strawberries (Main et al., 1986), apricots (French et al., 1989) and turnips (Moreira et al., 1994). only water before blanching and canning improved the weight yield in the final product. The water retention resulting in this case could be also improved thanks to the preliminary infusion of a hydrocolloid like xanthan gum (Gormley and Walshe, 1986). Xanthan impregnation tended to decrease the shrinkage of mushroom during the blanching canning cycle and thus to reduce the product weight loss. Moreover, the pretreatment with xanthan led to a...


The energy use for canning of tomato products was obtained from the daily amount of tomato received by the plant and the total daily energy consumption (2). Tomato processing consists of several operations. At the receiving station the tomatoes are removed from the gondolas with the use of water. The water containing field dirt of the tomatoes is pumped to a mud-settling tank. The tomatoes are conveyed in a hydraulic flume for additional washing Peach canning involves receiving peaches in bins, dumping fruit into a water tank and then elevating it out with a conveyor. The peaches are then graded for size, rinsed with water and pitted. After pit removal, the peach halves are oriented cup down on a belt conveyor and conveyed to a lye-bath peeler. After exposure to caustic solution for a predetermined time, the fruit are again rinsed. The fruit are allowed to orientate cup up are reinspected, are size-graded, and filled into cans along with syrup. The canned fruit are then heated in...

Food products and processing technology

Food products in the past have often been grouped according to their preservation technology - frozen foods, canned foods, chilled foods, dried foods, ambient foods. For example milk products are grouped as 'fresh', UHT (ultra-heat treated), canned, dried fruits as 'fresh', canned, dried, frozen. The main reason for this grouping was that the preservation method was dominant in processing, distribution and retailing and therefore to change the preservation method was a major undertaking in resources. The first three, freezing, canning and chilling, are thermal processes controlling food quality by temperature and time. Non-thermal processes, controlling water activity, atmospheric gases and packaging, preserve dried and ambient foods. In recent years, there has been increased interest in non-thermal preservation of food for example by irradiation and by high pressures (Knorr, 1999). Both processes have arisen in an effort to avoid damage to food quality in processing, but both have...

General References

The change in color following mechanical or physiological injury of fruits and vegetables is due to oxidative reactions of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the reaction products, o-quinones, to various polymerized products. In food processing, such color change is commonplace during preparation for canning, dehydration, freezing, or storage. Formation of the dark brown color causes the product to become unattractive and is accompanied by undesirable changes in flavor and a reduction in nutritive value. However, in some other cases such as the manufacture of tea, coffee, or cocoa, this enzymatic browning reaction is an essential part of the processing. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidative browning has been recognized since 1895, when the change in color of fresh apple cider was

Crabs And Crab Processing

Crabs play an important part in the U.S. fishing industry. Ex-vessel landings and values usually rank low in quantity (Fig. 1) and high in value (Fig. 2). The quantity and value of the major crab fishes in the United States in 1996 are shown in Table 1 (1). Variations in processing methods for crabs are related to the species and the seasonal characteristics that affect yield, ease of meat removal, and color. Speed in handling the product from time of harvesting to freezing or canning is a most important process requirement (2,3). Quality control procedures generally emphasize sanitation, food regulatory requirements, and compliance with end-product specifications of the processor (4).

Behaviour of nutrients during processing vitamins

Clifcorn and Peterson reviewed the retention of ascorbic acid during tomato juice manufacture.27 They reported that an average of 63-70 retention was found during three separate plant surveys and that in some plants retention as high as 94 had been achieved. They emphasised that in plants where retention was high, total elapsed canning time was short (2-3 min) and those conditions that increased the oxidation rate were minimised.

Fish Meals and Fish Solubles

Fish meals are produced from fish caught specifically for making meals such as anchovy, herring, and menhaden or from the residues remaining after processing fish mostly for human consumption. Whitefish meal is produced from whitefish or whitefish waste. Fish meals are high in protein and indispensable AA and a good source of most vitamins and minerals. However, fish meal produced from degraded raw material is of low quality and can be toxic to animals because of high histamine concentrations.1-11-1 Feeding fish meal may result in the development of a fish-like odor in final products. Fish solubles are by-products of the fish canning and fish oil industries. After centrifuging to remove the oil, the remaining fraction can be condensed or dried to make solubles. Fish solubles contain high-quality protein and are an excellent source of the B vitamins.

Origin Botanical facts

Throughout Asia, unripe jackfruit is often boiled, fried, or roasted. The ripe fruit, which emits a pleasant smell and has a sweet taste, is usually eaten fresh as a dessert, or fermented and distilled to produce a liquor. Jackfruit also is preserved by drying or canning. Jackfruit seeds are roasted or boiled and eaten like chestnuts or, in India, used in curries.

Microorganisms In Finfish

The flora of fish depends on intrinsic factors (season, fish ground, and species) and extrinsic ones (fishing method, fish handling on board, storage condition, sampling technique, medium, and incubation temperature). Trawled fish usually carry bacterial loads 10-100 times greater than those of lined fish, because fish are dragged for a long time along the sea bottom (4). The physiological condition of fish prior to death has an effect on postharvest quality. When tuna, the fastest swimming fish, are captured in a highly stressful state, the buildup of lactic acid combined with elevated muscle temperature degrade the muscle quality, although the tuna is still acceptable for canning. Salmon harvested by gill netting die after an exhausting struggle, resulting in a shorter period of rigor mortis and deterioration during icing (10). The fish should be handled as soon as possible after being landed on the vessel. Careful handling of fish with gaff hook or forks and avoiding severe...

Food Crops Postharvest Deterioration

Estimates vary widely on how much of a crop is actually consumed (1,2). Processing techniques such as canning, freezing, and drying are designed to minimize these losses and extend the length of the season they are available for consumption. Postharvest handling techniques that manipulate the storage environment extend the life of the product while keeping it in a fresh state. Minimal processes such as cutting, slicing, and dicing increase the appeal and convenience of the item frequently at the expense of greater perishability (3). Losses of edible product begin in the field during harvesting and loading continue during

Managing Material Flow and Batching

The flow of materials in canning requires that incoming vegetables be washed, sorted by grades, placed in a container that is partially filled with brine, then retort processed before being cooled, labeled, and placed in cases. Although not all of these steps are used in every manufacturing sequence, brining and retort processing are both batch-processing steps. The flow of materials provides a structure to organize information regarding this manufacturing sequence. Such information can be fed forward to control subsequent steps in the processing. For example, the size of peas (as well as the variety of peas and the formulation of the brining solution) will affect the time and temperature settings for the subsequent retort processing. Amounts of materials and corresponding costs may be kept in this same flow of materials structure as well as information required by government regulation or company policy.

Quality criteria for fresh produce appearance texture flavour and aroma

Eating quality includes a complex of texturalpropertieswhich arenotreadily defined or measured. Crisp firm tissues aregenerallydesiredin vegetablecrops however, the development of tough fibres during storage in stem crops such as asparagus is not at all acceptable. Some aspectsoftexturecan bejudgedvisually as described above, for example, where produce has begun to wilt or shrivel. Although some degree of softening is is undesirable and is a sign of senescenceorinternaldecay. Themain-tenance of textural quality is often critical in certain types of processing, for example in canning and freezing.

Introduction the development of thermal processing

Thermal processing is one of the conventional preservation methods which assures processed foods to be safe and shelf-stable. The origin of commercial thermal processing dates back to 1809 when the Frenchman Nicholas Appert was awarded a prize by the French government for developing a new and successful means of preserving foods, a method that eventually became known as 'canning'. Appert found a new and effective way to preserve food, but did not understand why it prevented food spoilage. In 1864, Louis Pasteur, another Frenchman, explained that the heating process killed (or inactivated) the microorganisms which limited the shelf-life of foods. This laid the foundation for advances in canning methods that eventually revolutionized the industry. In the 1890s, Prescott and Underwood established the relationship between thermophilic bacteria and the spoilage of canned corn. At about the same time, the same type of spoilage was discovered in canned peas by Russell in Wisconsin and Barlow...

Electron Microscope Operation

Spot-scanning When recording images of highly tilted samples, the resolution perpendicular to the tilt axis can be severely affected by charge-induced specimen drift during the acquisition The illuminated sample area can accumulate electrical charge during the exposure, which gradually deflects electrons into the direction perpendicular to the tilt axis. This effect can be minimized by the sandwich sample preparation method but also by using the so-called spot-canning illumination method (17) The electron beam on the sample is concentrated into an area of 50 to 100 nm diameter, and step-wise scanned over the sample area, whereas the entire hexagonally arranged spot-scan pattern is recorded onto the same photographic film (see Fig. 4 29 ). Each spot-scanning spot has an exposure time of for example 50 ms (when using a FEG instrument), whereas the camera shutter remains open for a few minutes to record the entire spot-scanning pattern on one photographic film. Attention has to be paid...

Transferring Heat In Foods

The processes of canning, pasteurizing, and cooking depend on transferring heat into a product to elevate the temperature to a level that will destroy microorganisms. Heat sterilization of a product (eg, pouch packaging and canning) under anaerobic conditions requires closely controlled time and temperature process conditions to ensure that spores resistant to heat (eg, Clostridium botulinum) do not survive. Pasteurization temperature and time are just as important to ensure that food-borne diseases are not spread by the food. Cooking a food not only improves sensory acceptance but reduces the microbial content.

Effects Of Processing On Naturally Occurring Carotenoids And Carotenoid Colorants In Foods

As discussed earlier, carotenoids tend to be sensitive to oxygen, light, and heat. However, cooking-associated losses generally tend to be less than 30 (38), depending on circumstances and product. Heat-intensive processing of fruits and vegetables, such as commercial sterilization (canning), have in some cases been reported to result in significant carotenoid losses (38). However, such data have often not accounted for changes in moisture content, which generally increase with canning and other cooking procedures involving addition of water. Accounting for alteration in moisture content, carotenoid retention during canning is generally high. The major reactions which occur during canning are those involving isomerization rather than oxidation. Carotene losses during storage of canned fruits or vegetables at ambient temperatures are minimal, probably because of low oxygen tension and high water content. In most foods, an acid pH tends to stabilize carotenoid pigments by inhibiting...

Processing Preparation and Cooking Effects

Many processing steps are required in the transformation of a live bird to a ready-to-cook, semiprepared (semicooked) or fully prepared (cooked) poultry product. Each processing step is also subjected to variations. Processing variables that have been investigated regarding the flavor of cooked poultry include chilling of eviscerated carcasses, application of phosphates, canning, refrigeration, and frozen storage of raw carcass or cooked meat.

The Decision to Be Tested

Some authors have advanced the concept of relational responsibility as playing a key role in decisions regarding testing (Burgess and d'Agincourt-Canning). This ethical concept emphasizes that decisions about genetic testing occur within complex social relationships that are embedded in and shaped by notions of responsibility to specific others. Thus, although testing guidelines often emphasize that the decision whether to undergo genetic testing should be solely that of the individual for his or her own purposes and free from coercion by a spouse or another family member, research suggests that in reality people often make decisions about testing on the basis of the wishes and desires of others, primarily close family members, about whom they care deeply. Rosamund Rhodes has taken the notion of relational responsibility further, arguing that individuals have a moral duty to pursue genetic information about themselves, especially in cases in which that information has ramifications...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

The introduction of commercial fishing and canneries had significant gender implications. Commercial fishing was not the partnership that subsistence fishing was. Processing was separated from fishing. Men continued to fish for their families and for the canneries. The canneries employed local women, as well as Asian workers, in their plants. At first both men and women continued to work in the industry, but in a different way. Over the years, as outsiders took more of the canning work, local women were forced out of the industry. Many took new Western-style jobs that demanded year-round stability. Since fishing remained men's primary employment, they were not available for other work during the fishing months. In many of the villages this has lead to a division of labor that dictates a seasonal work schedule for men and a year-round schedule for women. Men still fish and hunt for their families, and women still gather and preserve foods, but this is generally added to their...

Types of thermal process

Blanching is a mild heat treatment used to inactivate the oxidative enzymes in fruits and vegetables prior to further processing (canning, freezing and dehydration), which otherwise will result in undesirable changes in color, flavor and nutritive value of the product during handling and storage. Apart from enzyme

The microbial spoilage of food

Some foodstuffs are more susceptible to spoilage than others fresh items such as meat, fish, dairy produce and fruit and vegetables are all highly perishable. Foods such as rice and flour, on the other hand, are much more resistant, because having no water content they do not provide suitable conditions for microbial growth. Drying is one of a number of methods of food preservation, all designed to prevent growth of microorganisms by making conditions unfavourable. Other methods include heating canning, drying, pickling, smoking and, in many countries, irradiation.

Technological Procedures Related To Shelf Life

Table 10.7 shows the traditional methodologies that have been used by humans in order to extend the shelf life of foods and their basic preservation principles.2125-127 Freezing, canning, and drying are the three principal food preservation techniques used nowadays. The baking of bread, manufacture of ice cream, production of fruit jams, fermentation of yogurt, smoking of sausage, and many other processes result in foods with prolonged shelf life. These techniques, however, are more properly classified as manufacturing since their principal goal is the creation of a new food product. Freezing, drying, and canning are used to protect all foods (raw agricultural produce as well as manufactured food items) from microbial, chemical, or physical spoilage for many months.125

Nutrient Requirements Carnivores

BRecommended taurine allowances are lowest when diets are unprocessed (0.04 of DM) but are increased by extrusion (0.1 of DM) or canning (0.2 of DM). bRecommended taurine allowances are lowest when diets are unprocessed (0.04 of DM) but are increased by extrusion (0.1 of DM) or canning (0.2 of DM).

Preservation Principles And Applications

A number of preservation processes use heat to extend the shelf life of foods. High-temperature preservation methods performed commercially are controlled processes that include canning, aseptic processing, pasteurization, and blanching. Microorganisms differ in their heat resistance and are classified as psychrotrophs, mesophiles, or thermophiles according to their tolerance to heat. However, all microorganisms can be destroyed by the application of heat, and each organism has a certain time temperature relationship associated with it to ensure a given reduction in its population. The most intense heating preservation process would render the food sterile. Sterilization refers to the complete destruction of all microorganisms. Complete sterility is difficult to achieve and often leads to a reduction in the quality attributes of the food, since most food components such as proteins or vitamins are also heat sensitive. Commercial sterility has been defined as the...

Mushrooms Cultivation Description

The observation that certain edible mushrooms grow naturally on certain decomposing organic matter and the desire to produce a tasty source of food have led to the development of various techniques for the cultivation of mushrooms, and in some cases they have been fairly profitable. The cultivated species, however, have never been the most prized by gourmets. The favorite types are still the boletes, specific species of Amanita, and truffles all of them are mycorrhizal fungi, and their carpophores cannot be developed without the right symbiotic plant (1). To date, the only successes have been with the saprophytic species, that is, those that feed on dead organic matter. Among these the best known is undoubtedly the champion, Agar-icus bisporus, which has given rise to a thriving agricultural industry. Each year millions of tons of these mushrooms are produced for direct consumption, for the canning industry, and for the preparation of soups and sauces. In recent decades the...

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Thermal processing covers the broad area of food preservation technology in which heat treatments are used to inactivate microorganisms to accomplish either commercial sterilization or pasteurization. Sterilization processes are used with canning to preserve the safety and wholesomeness of ready-to-eat foods over long terms of extended storage at normal room temperature (nonrefrigerated) without additives or preservatives, and pasteurization processes are used to extend the refrigerated storage life of fresh foods. Although both processes make use of heat treatments for the purpose of inactivating microorganisms, they differ widely with respect to the classification or type of microorganisms targeted, and thus the range of temperatures that must be used and the type of equipment systems capable of achieving such temperatures.

Poultry Marine and Milk Products

Fish meals are produced from fish caught specifically for making meals or from the residues remaining after processing fish mostly for human consumption. Dried fish solubles are by-products of the canning and oil-production industries. After centrifuging to remove the oil, the remaining fraction can be dried to make the product. Dried skim milk and dried whey have been used for young animals. Most of the fat and fat-soluble vitamins are removed in the skim milk, and whey is the part of milk that

Thermal Sterilization Of Canned Liquid Foods

Perhaps least recognizable, however, is the important role that thermal processing technology has played in the pharmaceutical and health care industry. Large quantities and varieties of sterile solutions are required daily for surgical and patient care procedures. Sterile saline solutions, irrigation solutions, intravenous solutions with dextrose or glucose, and dialysate solutions, along with a host of other large-volume parenteral solutions in glass, plastic, flexible and semirigid containers, are sterilized in retort systems using the technology of canning for food preservation. Such products, of course, are neither thought of nor considered to be canned foods, but they are in fact a very important use of thermal processing technology throughout the world.

Thermal Processing Of Food

Thermal processing of canned foods has been one of the most widely used methods of food preservation during this century. In its broadest sense, it refers to the technology of using heat sterilization to preserve ready-to-eat foods and other biological products so that they can remain safe and wholesome under long-term extended storage at room temperature without chemical additives or preservatives. Foods preserved in this manner have become so commonplace in the human diet that the health of the world population now depends in great measure on the safety and wholesomeness of these foods. Thermal processing consists of heating food containers in pressurized retorts at specified temperatures for prescribed lengths of time. These process times are calculated on the basis of achieving sufficient bacterial inactivation (lethality) in each container to comply with public health standards and to ensure that the probability of spoilage will be less than some minimum. Associated with each...

Spore Forming Bacteria

Clostridium species are gram-positive, anaerobic spore formers. Some are highly anaerobic and can be killed in the presence of molecular oxygen, whereas others are aero-tolerant. Important species in food spoilage include C. bu-tyricum, C. putrefaciens, and C. sporogenes. From the standpoint of food safety, C. botulinum is the most important because it produces a group of highly toxic protein toxins called botulin. These toxins are responsible for the often fatal disease called botulism. The canning industry has spent millions of dollars designing time and temperature treatments aimed specifically at killing the spores of this organism in canned goods. Fortunately, the toxin is heat sensitive. Boiling the toxin for 10 min will render it inactive.

Reliability And Performance

Whether the end product could withstand the rigors of postprocess handling and distribution (i.e., be free of leakers swells, and or contamination). Although some technology and criteria were usable from metal and glass canning and from frozen and dry food flexible packaging, the retort pouch's characteristics were singular enough that new specifications and testing protocols were necessary.

Reduction And Reuse Of Wastes

For the first point, a series of internal-control regulations have been adopted, such as reusing lyes for the treatment of olives reducing the lye concentration up to a minimum effective value and reducing, and even completely eliminating the washing operations by neutralizing the residual free lye after the alkaline treatment (99). With regard to the regeneration of the fermentation brines, to be used in bottling and canning operations, the most successful procedures include ultrafiltration and a previous treatment with active coal followed by a filtration (107,108).

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

Establishments primarily engaged in the slaughtering, for their own account or on a contract basis for the trade, of cattle, hogs, sheep, lambs, and calves for meat to be sold or to be used on the same premises in canning, cooking, curing, and freezing, and in making sausage, lard, and other products. Also included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in slaughtering horses for human consumption. Establishments primarily engaged in slaughtering, dressing, and packing poultry, rabbits, and other small game are classified in Industry 2015 and those primarily engaged in slaughtering and processing animals not for human consumption are classified in Industry 2048. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing sausages and meat specialties from purchased meats are classified in Industry 2013 and establishments primarily engaged in canning meat for baby food are classified in Industry 2032. meats, and other prepared meats and meat specialties, from purchased carcasses...

Food Additives Colors and Flavors

The modern era of food processing came during Napoleon's quest for power in 1810. Driven by concerns about feeding his army far from home, Napoleon offered a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who could develop a stable ration. The French chef Nicholas Appert found that one could fill bottles with food and after the bottles were sealed with corks, they could be heated in boiling water, and this process made foods last for some time. Thus was invented the food process of canning or appertization.

Biologically Stable Intermediates

Example, when the inhabitants of the hot dry desert areas used to bury dates, figs, and grapes in the hot dry sands to dehydrate them. With partial removal of water, the sugar content of the fruit was high enough to prevent the growth of microorganisms, and the fruit would keep for long periods of time. The fruit could be consumed at a later date without the need for further processing. A number of other technologies were also developed to accomplish this. These include simple dehydration, chemical preservation, pickling, fermentation, canning, freezing, and, more recently, a number of more-sophisticated approaches such as irradiation, hypobaric applications, pulsed light, and so on. All of these were concerned with processing food in a manner that would make it edible at a later date. But with the increasing importance of food fabrication, another concept emerged. Food commodities were essential as ingredients in many formulated foods, and a need arose to have food ingredients...

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Postharvest technology of mushrooms has been dealt in detail by many authors (Bano et al. 1997 Lal Kaushal and Sharma 1995 Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms are delicate, contain 90 water, rich in phenolics and have very active phenol oxidase and protease activities. They lack protective covering of suberin or cuticle, unlike fresh fruits and vegetables. Postharvest physiological and biochemical changes do take place at very fast rate. Storage in package films, sodium alginate coating, chemical preservation, lactic acid fermentation, irradiation, steeping preservations have been attempted to varied levels of success for short-term preservation of mushrooms. But dehydration and canning are the most common forms of long-term storage and trade in mushrooms while canning is the most common method for the button mushroom, drying is resorted to for storage and trade of all the specialty mushrooms. Button mushrooms are also freeze-dried in limited quantities. However, improvements in solar...

Gender over the Life Cycle

Young girls tend to work inside at cooking, cleaning and sewing and outside at food producing tasks such as tending the gardens and canning fruit. Daughters help mothers with washing, ironing, and other chores (Bennion, 1998, p. 82). Fathers instruct sons in caring for animals, carrying firewood, moving heavy machinery, construction, carpentry, auto repair, and, at times, babysitting (Bennion, 1998).

Food Research Before The Term Food Science Arose

Food science as a distinct discipline is not quite a century old, but aspects of it have existed for centuries. Appert's development in 1810 of the process of canning (1) was an epochal event. The process wasn't called canning then, and Appert himself did not really know the principle upon which his process depended, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation ever since its development. It was the first of the purposely invented processes. Other methods developed earlier, such as drying and fermentation, go back to antiquity and were a result of the evolution of procedures over centuries rather than the purposeful application of the scientific method. Pasteur's study on the spoilage of wine and his description in 1864 (2,3) of how to avoid such spoilage persists not only because of the scientific importance of his findings but also because the term, pasteurization, is so much a part of our vocabulary. There were other early studies on food spoilage. In 1897 Prescott and...

Exposure assessment for foodborne pathogens

Foodborne illnesses have declined over much of the last century as the result of advances in processing and storage technologies such as pasteurization, canning, packaging and refrigeration, coupled with strong regulation of the food industry, increased hygiene and sanitation. The globalization of agriculture and food trade has also led to many benefits, including lower food prices for American consumers and year round access to a huge variety of fresh foods. However, the emergence of microbial pathogens such as Campylobacter and Escherichia coli 0157 H7, protozoan parasites, enteric viruses, and prions such as those that cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have prompted new food safety concerns in recent years. Further, new food safety concerns have arisen owing to global sourcing of ingredients and distribution of foods, a larger proportion of the diet consumed outside the home, higher consumer expectations, and re-emergence of established pathogens, which exhibit enhanced...

Effect Of Food Processing

Destroyed by some enzymes (eg, lipoxygenase), and are usually bleached by light. Most carotenoids are fat soluble and thus are not subject to leaching losses. Generally they are fairly stable to the heat involved in canning but are rapidly lost on dehydration because of oxidation. Although the most stable form of the carotenoids is the all-trans form, the cis-geometrical isomer can form upon heating, especially in the presence of H+. The cis-isomer carotenoids are naturally present in the tangerine tomato. It has been shown that if -carotene activity was set at 100 , the neo- -carotene vitamin A activity was 38 , and the neo-a-carotene activity was 13 . The transformation from trans to cis results in a loss of extinction and a shift in absorption maxima to shorter (2-5 mm). Cooking causes the formation of cis isomers from all-trans -carotene (38). Broccoli lost 13 , spinach lost 7 , and the sweet potato lost 32 of the all-irans isomer. A 15 loss of vitamin A was reported, mainly due...

Food Freezing

Freezing has long been established as an effective method for the long-term preservation of foods. It has the potential to maintain quality and nutritional characteristics close to those of fresh foods. Although refrigerated storage has been developed to a stage where high quality can be maintained for a few weeks, when extended shelf life is required of a preservation technology, the most commonly used methods are freezing, thermal processing, and canning. It is generally accepted that of these three methods, freezing is superior (1). Properly conducted freezing retains much of the flavor, color, texture, and nutritive value of food. The activity of microorganisms is much reduced, and, while frozen, many enzymes also have reduced activity. However, the freezing process can disrupt the control systems that influence enzyme action, leading to undesirable changes during thawing. Where this is a problem, special techniques may be used to destroy or reduce enzymic activity before...


Cherries, of the family Rosaceae, are believed to have originated in the Caspian and Black Sea area, and wild trees inhabit all of Europe (5). They were domesticated in Greece as early as 300 B.C. The colonists brought them to America. Cherries are drupe fruits with a stone center. The two main types of cherries are sweet (P. avium) and pie, tart, or sour (P. cerasus). U.S. production in 1993 was estimated at 170,000 tons for sweet cherries and 160,000 tons for tart cherries. Several preservation methods are available. Traditionally cherries have been canned. Canning involves soaking the cherries in cold water to firm them for the pitting operation. After pitting, the cherries are put into cans or jars, syrup is added, and the containers are thermally processed. Tart cherries are usually pitted, but most sweet cherries are not. Frozen cherries are usually pitted and blanched before filling and freezing. Brining involves soaking the cherries in a 1 solution of sulfur dioxide, or one of...

Regulatory Controls

Regulations are in place to ensure the control of critical parameters in the canning of foods. The U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act prohibits the distribution and sale of foods that carry disease-causing contaminants as well as a list of undesirable elements categorized as filth. Two episodes with botulism in the canning industry in 1971 led to a petition from the National Canners Association, now the National Food Processors Association (NFPA), to the U.S. FDA proposing a statement of policy that was handled as a proposal for regulation. After receiving comments, the FDA published minimum good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. After various revisions and comment periods since that time, the FDA now has published several GMP regulations that pertain to canned foods in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has published regulations for canning of meat (21 CFR 318.300) and poultry (21 CFR 381.300) products, Canning and Canned...


Approximately 90 of the blackberry crop is processed, perhaps because the fresh fruit has a storage life of only 4 to 5 days. In earlier years, blackberries were more popular as fresh fruit rather than being processed because of the difficulty in handpicking canes with abundant thorns. The introduction of mechanical picking machines changed the economics of harvesting, and blackberry products became much more popular. Canning and freezing are the main methods of preservation. Juice production is increasing along with the national increase in consumption of fruit juices.

Food Blanching

Blanching is an important unit operation in the pretreat-ment of fruits and vegetables. It is used prior to freezing, canning, and dehydration. The blanching process is a relatively fast process. Blanching time is a function of piece size, heating medium, and temperature as well as material packing in the blancher. The most common heating media are steam and water. Design of a blancher has a significant influence on the energy used. The open steam blanchers are approximately 10 less efficient than the sealed units (21). Steam losses from the unsealed entrance and exit account for almost 80 of the energy input to the blancher. The steam blancher with end seals is similar in design to the conventional open steam blancher. Water sprays are positioned inside the ends of the blancher to liquify steam that might escape. They also serve to help cool the product at the exit. In such a design the steam losses are up to approximately 51 of the thermal energy input to the blancher. The thermal...

Condiments Salt

Since time immemorial salt has been the most important seasoning for food, and prior to the invention of canning and refrigeration, salting was the most important way of preserving food, aside from drying and smoking. The two types of salt available to medieval consumers were rock salt and sea salt, also known as bay salt. Rock salt was mined either in solid form, or by dissolving it in water that was then evaporated aboveground, leaving behind the salt crystals. Sea salt was produced in shallow coastal salt pans of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. France was and still is one of the major producers of sea salt in Europe. Since this type of salt contained many impurities, it was either

Predrying Treatments

Preparation of raw fruit for drying is similar to that of canning and freezing. It includes washing, sorting for size and maturity, peeling, and cutting into halves, wedges, slices, cubes, nuggets, and so on. Alkali dipping is used for raisins and prunes. Blanching is used for some fruits.

Thermal Processing

Century has been thermal processing of foods. The term thermal processing generally refers to a process during which a food product is subjected to high temperatures with the objective of inactivating undesirable microorganisms and or enzymes in order to comply with public health standards. It includes operations such as conventional and aseptic canning as well as pasteurization. Foods are by nature contaminated by microorganisms and contain indigenous enzymes that may cause undesirable changes in products during storage. Proper thermal processing can extend shelf life by weeks (eg, pasteurization) or months to years (eg, canning). Unfortunately, in addition to destruction of microorganisms, there is an associated undesirable degradation of heat-sensitive vitamins and other quality factors. It is, therefore, of critical importance to determine the appropriate heat treatment for individual food products when calculating process times to ensure high-quality and safe products. Canning...

Preparation Tips

For ease of use, consider using canned crabmeat. Or, if you prefer, choose pasteurized crabmeat, which has been heated in cans but has not been subjected to the higher temperatures of the canning process. For this reason, pasteurized crabmeat should be stored unopened in the refrigerator no longer than 6 months. Use it quickly after opening. Always use your fingers to pick over crabmeat, fresh or canned, to make sure there are not tiny pieces of hidden shell. Refrigerate leftover cooked crabmeat, tightly covered, for not more than 2 days.

The Testing Process

Requests for testing can arise from a variety of circumstances and for a number of reasons. For example, although genetic test results can be used to guide individual healthcare and reproductive decisions, genetic testing often is sought to fulfill familial, domestic, or vocational responsibilities (Burgess and d'Agincourt-Canning). For this reason healthcare professionals must be adept at presenting and discussing the potential ramifications of testing in light of the at-risk individual's reason for requesting testing. Genetics practice also calls for pretest and posttest counseling and formal informed consent procedures to ensure that people deciding whether to undergo genetic testing are informed about the risks and potential harms, benefits, and limitations of the test, as well as alternatives and treatment options (National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research Holtzman and Watson).

Varietal Differences

Many examples demonstrate the importance of varietal differences in the marketplace. Differences in color and sweetness in fresh apple cultivars help satisfy regional and individual tastes. Other cultivars are preferred for specific processing or home applications. The length of the peach season in a particular growing area is the result of a succession of early-, middle-, and late-maturing cultivars different cultivars adapt to different climatic regions. Clingstone cultivars provide a firmer peach for canning and a better appearance, but many consumers prefer the flavor of freestone peaches in the fresh market. The cultivar of choice for a grape grower depends on the intended application fresh, juice, jelly, raisins, or wine. Supersweet cultivars of corn were developed to increase sugar content by slow hydrolysis of sucrose during postharvest handling and storage. Processing cultivars of tomatoes must have a high-solids content, commercial cultivars that are shipped across the...

Tomato Products

Biogically stable intermediate products became feasible with the concept of aseptic packaging developed by W. M. Martin in 1935 (4). He developed the concept of sterilizing a product, sterilizing the container, and bringing the two together, with a sterile cap, in a sterile atmosphere. Conventional canning at that time consisted of filling and capping a container and heat treating the closed container to ensure sterility. This means that the center point of the container needed to receive sufficient heat treatment to ensure sterility however, the outer portions of the container would be overheated and the quality of the food would be lowered. This effectively limited the size of the container to a No. 10 can, approximately 1 gal. If the product could be sterilized in a thin film outside the container, and packaged aseptically, the size of the container was limitless. I remember visiting a large food processor in the 1940s. They required a large quantity of tomato paste to formulate...

Sodium Chloride

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or common salt, is probably the oldest known food preservative. Few present-day foods are preserved directly by high concentrations of NaCl. Rather salt is used primarily as an adjunct to other processing methods such as canning or curing (3). In general, food-borne pathogenic bacteria are inhibited by a water activity of 0.92 or less (equivalent to a NaCl concentration of 13 w v). The exception is Staphylococcus aureus, which has a minimum water activity for growth of 0.83 to 0.86. Another relatively salt-tolerant foodborne pathogen is Listeria monocytogenes, which can survive in saturated salt solutions at low temperatures. Fungi are more tolerant to low water activity than bacteria. The minimum for growth of xerotolerant fungi is 0.61 to 0.62, but most are inhibited by 0.85 or lower (4).


In the preparation of canned tuna and other species of fish the starting point is usually precooked fish. After steam-cooking the fish is cooled and bones, skin, and the dark fish flesh are removed carefully and the fish is suitable for canning. A formula for water-packed tuna is given in Table 6.


Lentinula Edodes Life Cycle

Mushrooms are grown on compost, usually in mushroom houses where the temperature and humidity can be controlled. They are harvested daily, cooled immediately, and processed the same day. For mushrooms kept for more than a few hours before processing, refrigeration will delay veil opening and reduce weight loss.111 Braaksma et al.112 have studied the aging of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) under post-harvest conditions and found that in contrast to higher plants, mushroom senescence appears to be independent of degradation of specific membrane lipid contents. Several techniques exist for the commercial processing of mushrooms including canning and pasteurization, dehydration, and freeze-drying.113 Many methods have been proposed to extend the shelf life of fresh mushrooms some are cited in the section entitled Methods of Improving Shelf Life and Quality .

Food Irradiation

For many consumers, the phrase food irradiation conjures up images of devastation, debilitation, or concerns regarding danger to both life and the environment. Much of the unfounded fear is created by equating irradiation with its root word radiation. Food irradiation is a food preservation process or method that can protect food from microorganisms, insects, and other pests that can make our food supply unsafe or undesirable. Compared with other food preservation processes, food irradiation has many advantages, such as low energy consumption and low cost (even compared with conventional refrigeration and deep freezing). It is a cold process, which means that there are no changes in texture of the food, such as those that occur with canning or freezing. Food irradiation is an excellent alternative to chemical fumigants, such as the banned ethylene dibromide, and as a process is extremely effective to control many foodborne diseases, e.g., salmonellosis. Finally, as a process, food...