Components Branches

Cords

Divisions

Trunks

Roots

Relationships

Lateral Axillary Subclavius Omohyoid Vertebral artery border of artery Suprascapular External jugular Stellate ganglion pectoralis vessels vein major Transcervical artery Subclavian artery

Figure CA.21

The brachial plexus—relationships

Figure CA.22 Nerves of the lumbar plexus

Figure CA.23 Nerves of the sacral plexus

Optic II

Embryologically the optic nerve is part of the forebrain. Fibres originate in the ganglionic layer of the retina from which axons converge on the optic disc, piercing the sclera to form the optic nerve. The nerve runs posteriorly through the orbit and optic canal into the middle cranial fossa where it joins its partner from the contralateral side to form the optic chiasm. In the chiasm the fibres from the medial half of the retina cross to the opposite side while fibres from the lateral side of the retina pass in the optic tract of the same side. The optic tract passes backward to the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus and thence to the occipital visual cortex.

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