If the situation is life-threatening then group O blood is issued. If the patient is a pre menopausal female, O Rh D-negative must be issued. There is generally a shortage of O Rh D-negative blood due high demand for universal usage in emergency situations. Usually, there is sufficient time to perform ABO and Rh D groups on the patient sample by rapid techniques and to do an immediate spin cross match before issue. This may take 1015 min. An antibody screen is then performed by the laboratory retrospectively. A label stating that standard pre transfusion testing has not been performed is attached to the blood bag. In massive transfusion where one blood volume has been given within 24 H, ABO- and Rh D-compatible blood can be issued without further serological testing, provided no allo-antibodies were present by earlier testing.
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