Pre load

• Contractility

Overall control of SV is summarized in Figure HE.26. The above factors are based on physiological concepts arising from the performance of isolated muscle preparations. They have become useful in clinical practice when applied to the intact heart, but are difficult or impractical to measure directly. Hence more easily monitored parameters are used as practical indices. A summary for each parameter precedes a more detailed consideration in the following sections. These summaries consists of:

• Physiological definition—a theoretical definition for the parameter.

• Physiological index—a measurement from which the physiological definition can be derived

• Practical concept—a description of the parameter suitable for clinical use

• Practical index—a measurement used clinically for the parameter

Figure HE.26 Control of stroke volume

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