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Fhr Marked Variability
Figure PR.4 ECG changes associated with hypo- and hyperkalaemia

A heavy smoker is anyone who smokes 20 or more cigarettes per day. Smoking causes several perioperative problems: increased airway reactivity; increased sputum production and retention; bronchospasm; coughing and atelectasis associated with an increased risk of post operative chest infection. Associated diseases include ischaemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Up to 15% of the haemoglobin in smokers combines with carbon monoxide to form carboxyhaemoglobin, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. After 12-24 hours of stopping smoking the effects of carbon monoxide and nicotine are significantly reduced and after 6-8 weeks ciliary and immunological activity are restored. All smokers should be encouraged to abstain prior to theatre.

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How To Quit Smoking

How To Quit Smoking

Did You Ever Thought You Could Quit Smoking And Live A Healthy Life? Here Are Some Life Saving Tips On How To Do It. Have you ever thought about quitting smoking, but either thought it was impossible or just simply wasn’t that important? Research shows that most smokers do want to quit smoking and they are waiting for that auspicious day eagerly.

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